Category: Diet

Subcutaneous fat and diet

Subcutaneous fat and diet

Glucose fluctuations, the software determines uSbcutaneous area in Amd region that contains non-black pixels, the line is Subcutaneous fat and diet and Subcutaheous area is Subcutneous in cm2. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Gaborit B, Jacquier A, Kober F, Abdesselar I, Cuisset T, Boullu-Ciocca S et al. Measure your waistline at the level of the navel — not at the narrowest part of the torso — and always measure in the same place. Aiming for overall fat loss will help them lose subcutaneous fat.

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6 Foods That CAUSE Belly Fat (Visceral Fat) To AVOID

Subcutaneous fat and diet -

For example, if you think you have a binge eating disorder, then you should address that first before trying to lose weight through diet and exercise. When it comes to exercise, Wonoprabowo says a mix of cardio and strength training is the best method to lose subcutaneous fat. The World Health Organization suggests overweight and obese adults exercise at least minutes throughout the week, which comes out to about 21 minutes per day, or slightly longer workouts with a couple of rest days in between.

As for diet, you're going to want to cut down on processed foods, added sugars, saturated fats, and junk food in general. What specific diet you choose to follow isn't necessarily as important as sustainability.

It should be a diet that's healthy and something that will work for you long term, to lose the weight and keep it off. Making these positive life changes will not just result in you losing subcutaneous fat — you'll also be losing visceral fat.

A meta-analysis published in the International Journal of Obesity showed that visceral fat loss is linked to subcutaneous fat loss. This can result in a slimmer waist, and more importantly, lower risk for health problems associated with excess visceral fat like cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, and premature death.

If you're successfully losing subcutaneous fat, you'll probably be able to tell. Clothes fitting looser than they did before is a great indicator. Of course, you can also keep track of body fat percentage with a caliper, waist measurements, or scales.

However, it's about more than the number on the scale and how you look. Wonoprabowo encourages patients to look at the bigger picture. Is their diabetes better controlled? Is their cholesterol better? Is their blood pressure better? Are we able to decrease the number of medications they are taking?

Losing subcutaneous fat is a great way to get your health on the right track. If you're having trouble losing weight, speak to your doctor for effective options. Close icon Two crossed lines that form an 'X'.

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In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Rapid eating has been demonstrated to be associated with obesity and overweight.

However, few studies have characterized the separate relationships of eating speed with visceral and subcutaneous fat mass or circulating adiponectin concentration. We hypothesized that rapid eating is associated with the larger visceral fat tissue VFT area and lower adiponectin concentration, but not with the subcutaneous fat tissue SFT area in men and women.

The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire, and underwent anthropometric and laboratory measurements and computed tomographic imaging of the abdomen as a part of annual medical check-ups. In contrast, rapid eating was found to be associated only with BMI, and not with abdominal adipose area or adiponectin concentration in women, which is a result that is not consistent with the hypothesis.

These results suggest that there is no difference in the association of rapid eating with VFT and SFT areas. Obesity and overweight are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that poses a risk to health. Obesity and overweight are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and musculoskeletal disorders 1.

Eating behavior is one of the contributors to obesity and overweight. A meta-analysis demonstrated that rapid eating, the consumption of a larger-than-normal amount of food per unit time, is associated with obesity and overweight 2.

The results were derived from community studies 3 , 4 and from studies of patients with diabetes and hyperlipidemia 5 , 6. This relationship was also identified in children and adolescents 7 , 8. Although most of these findings were made in Asian countries, others conducted in non-Asian countries have generated similar results 9 , Longitudinal studies have demonstrated that rapid eating is predictive of future obesity and overweight 11 , 12 , and interventions aimed at reducing eating speed have been shown to reduce BMI in adults with obesity Taken together, these results suggest that rapid eating causes obesity and overweight.

In most previous studies, anthropometric techniques have been used to assess abdominal fat mass, including BMI, waist circumference WC , and waist-to-hip ratio WHR. While these anthropometric techniques are readily performed, they are not particularly accurate, specific, or reproducible measures of abdominal fat mass In addition, they are incapable of differentiating the visceral fat tissue VFT located around the abdominal viscera, in the mesentery and omentum, and the subcutaneous fat tissue SFT situated under the skin.

VFT and SAT have distinct lipid storage and metabolic properties. In particular, VFT mass is more predictive of developing cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia 15 , Computed tomography CT and magnetic resonance imaging MRI are the gold-standard methods of assessing abdominal fat mass, because they provide highly accurate and specific quantitative data and can be used to measure the VFT and SFT areas separately However, CT and MRI have been used to evaluate the relationships between eating speed and abdominal fat components in few studies.

Previous CT and MRI-based studies have shown that rapid eating is associated with a larger VFT area but no difference in SFT area in non-obese adults 17 , apparently healthy adult men 18 , or children To the best of our knowledge, the relationships of eating speed with the VFT and SFT areas in both adult men and women have only been assessed in one previous study 17 using CT or MRI.

Because sex-differences in relevant parameters, including eating speed, metabolism, and visceral and subcutaneous fat distribution, have been found, further studies are necessary to confirm whether rapid eating is only associated with VFT, regardless of sex.

Adipocytes are thought to represent an endocrine organ because they secrete a large number of bioactive compounds, referred to as adipokines.

Adiponectin is one of these adipokines; is mostly secreted by white adipose tissue; has insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and anti-arteriosclerotic effects; and is thought to protect against the development of metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic diseases 20 , Adiponectin synthesis and secretion decrease with adipose hypertrophy, and lower adiponectin concentrations are associated with obesity and overweight Given that rapid eating is associated with obesity and overweight, it is also likely to be associated with lower adiponectin concentration.

A previous laboratory study demonstrated that higher postprandial adiponectin concentrations are associated with rapid eating, rather than with slower eating However, to our knowledge, no studies have yet focused on the relationship between long-term habitual eating speed and circulating adiponectin concentration.

In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the relationships of eating speed with VFT, SFT, and adiponectin concentration in adult men and women. On the basis of the results of previous studies that showed relationships of abdominal fat mass and adiponectin with rapid eating 3 , 23 , we hypothesized that rapid eating is associated with larger VFT area and lower adiponectin concentration, but not with SFT area in men and women.

The participants comprised agricultural workers, employees of agriculture-related companies, and their families. They each completed a questionnaire and the medical check-up staff checked the submitted questionnaires and asked the participants to complete any incomplete items.

Well-trained medical staff performed anthropometric measurements, blood sample collection, and CT imaging of the abdomen for each participant as part of their medical check-up.

The study was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine No. All the participants received detailed information about the study and provided their written informed consent before participation.

The self-reported questionnaire was composed of items regarding demographics age and sex , lifestyle factors, and depression. This question has been shown to yield repeatable outcomes for 1 year With respect to lifestyle parameters that are thought to be associated with obesity and overweight, current alcohol consumption frequency every day, sometimes, or rarely , current smoking yes or no , skipping breakfast three or more times a week yes or no , eating snacks after dinner three or more times a week yes or no , having dinner within 2 h of bedtime three or more times a week yes or no , and engaging in habitual physical activity yes or no were assessed.

Depression was assessed using a two-item screen A positive response to both items was considered to indicate possible depression. Height in cm and body mass in kg were measured using portable stadiometers, with the participants not wearing shoes, to the nearest 0.

BMI was calculated as body mass in kg divided by height in m, squared. WC was measured using a tape measure to the nearest 0.

Venous blood samples were collected in the morning after an overnight fast of at least 10 h. The plasma concentration of adiponectin was measured using a latex particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay and an automated analyzer Adiponectin Latex Kit, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co.

The serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein LDL -cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein HDL -cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured using enzymatic assay kits Kyowa Chemical, Japan and an Autoanalyzer Hitachi Ltd.

The VFT and SFT areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a car-mounted multi-slice CT scanner ELCOS, Hitachi Ltd. Descriptive data are presented according to sex as mean and standard deviation SD for continuous data and percentage and frequency for categorical data.

To evaluate the relationships of eating speed with the SFT and VFT areas and adiponectin concentration, multivariate linear regression analysis, involving a forced entry method, was conducted, with adjustment for age, the frequency of current alcohol consumption, current smoking, skipping breakfast, eating snacks, having dinner within 2 h of bedtime, habitual physical activity, and depression.

In addition, we evaluated the relationships of eating speed with BMI and WC using multivariate linear regression analysis and the forced entry method, adjusting for the covariates listed above. Variance inflation factors VIFs were computed for the relationships between explanatory variables to check for multicollinearity.

All the analyses were conducted separately for men and women. Because the data were obtained from all the participants in annual medical check-ups, a sample size calculation was not performed. All the analyses were conducted using R version 4.

The characteristics of the participants, categorized according to sex and eating speed, are shown in Table 1. Among the men, Among the women, 42 The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses for the VFT and SFT areas are shown in Table 2. Rapid eating was significantly associated with larger VFT and SFT areas, and rapid and moderate eating speeds were significantly associated with lower adiponectin concentration, after adjustment for age, the frequency of alcohol consumption, current smoking status, skipping breakfast, having snacks, having dinner within 2 h of bedtime, habitual physical activity, and depression.

Eating speed was not significantly associated with the VFT or SFT areas or adiponectin concentration after adjustment for the listed covariates. VIFs for the explanatory variables of 1.

The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses for BMI and WC are shown in Table 3. Rapid and moderate eating was significantly associated with higher BMI, and rapid eating speeds were significantly associated with larger WC, after adjustment for the listed covariates.

Rapid eating speed was significantly associated with higher BMI, but eating speed was not significantly associated with WC, after adjustment for the covariates.

We obtained VIFs for the explanatory variables of 1. In the present cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the relationships of eating speed with abdominal fat and adiponectin in adult men and women.

Specifically, we evaluated the relationships of self-reported eating speed with the VFT and SFT areas, measured using CT, and with the plasma adiponectin concentration. We found that rapid eating was associated with larger VFT and SFT areas and lower adiponectin concentration in men, which is partially consistent with the hypothesis.

However, in women, rapid eating was found to be associated only with BMI; there were no significant relationships of eating speed with abdominal fat mass or adiponectin concentration, which is a result that is not consistent with the hypothesis.

These findings suggest that there is no difference in the association of rapid eating with VFT and SFT areas. We found that rapid eating was associated with the larger VFT and SFT areas in men but was also associated with higher BMI and larger WC.

These results are consistent with those of previous anthropometric studies, which showed that rapid eating is associated with obesity and overweight 3 , 4. In previous CT and MRI-based studies in which VFT and SFT components were separately measured, contrasting results were obtained. Iwasaki et al.

These differing findings may be explained by the varied characteristics of the participants in the studies. For example, the male participants in the present study were older than those in the studies of Iwasaki et al. Low testosterone and osteocalcin concentrations, which are known to be associated with high adiposity 30 , 31 , 32 , and low muscle mass and basal metabolism may modulate the effects of rapid eating on SFT, as well as VFT, in older participants.

The mechanism underlying the relationship between rapid eating and abdominal fat accumulation remains unclear. One possibility is that rapid eating may cause insufficient satiety, leading to overeating and a higher total energy intake 33 , possibly because brief periods of sensory exposure provide insufficient cues for satiety 34 and are associated with lower secretion of gastrointestinal hormones that control this A previous laboratory study showed that rapid eating induces lower postprandial energy expenditure 23 , which may contribute to fat accumulation, even in the absence of overeating.

Unlike in men, eating speed was shown not to be associated with either the VFT or the SFT areas in women. Instead, it was found to be associated only with BMI. BMI is a measure of body mass that is adjusted for height, and therefore does not depend solely on abdominal fat mass. Adipose tissue is more likely to accumulate in the abdomen in men, while women more frequently accumulate fat in the gluteofemoral region.

Thus, rapid eating may be associated with fat accumulation in the gluteofemoral region, rather than in the abdomen, in women. The present findings in women are not consistent with the results of previous CT and MRI-based studies, which have shown that rapid eating is associated with larger abdominal fat depots in adult men and women 17 , and also in boys and girls Although some studies using anthropometric measures have shown that rapid eating is associated with larger abdominal fat depots in men and women e.

Otsuka et al. In contrast to the consistent results obtained for men, contradictory results have been obtained for women. Women have been shown to prefer less caloric foods 37 and are more likely to engage in dieting behavior to improve their physical appearance These eating behaviors may attenuate the effects of eating speed on abdominal fat mass.

Alternatively, because estrogen and progesterone regulate hunger and appetite 39 , and the participants in the present study were relatively old, low estrogen and progesterone levels or an imbalance of the two may explain the lack of a relationship between rapid eating and abdominal fat mass in these older women.

We have also shown that rapid eating is associated with low adiponectin concentration in men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a relationship between eating speed and adiponectin.

However, the finding is consistent with previous findings that rapid eating is associated with the levels of metabolic markers associated with obesity and overweight, such as low HDL-cholesterol concentration, high TG concentration, and high alanine aminotransferase ALT activity 36 , 40 , Rapid eating would be expected to be associated with a lower concentration of adiponectin, at least partly because of its effect to cause the accumulation of abdominal fat.

In women, we found no relationship between eating speed and adiponectin concentration. This may be because eating speed is not related to abdominal fat mass in women. Previous studies have demonstrated that adiponectin concentration is related to smoking status 42 , exercise, diet 43 , and coffee consumption The results of the present study extend the list of lifestyle factors, which are associated with adiponectin concentration, to include eating speed.

Eating speed can be controllable, and the reduction of eating speed represents a potential intervention strategy for the treatment of obesity and overweight. Previous intervention studies have shown that reducing eating speed by means of chewing food in the mouth at least 30 times reduces BMI in patients with obesity The findings of the present study may imply that reducing eating speed may reduce VFT and SFT mass and increase adiponectin concentration, particularly in men.

Future intervention studies should test these possibilities. The present study had several limitations. Eating speed was assessed using a self-reported, single-item questionnaire. This method has frequently been used in previous studies on the relationships between eating speed and obesity and related diseases, and has been validated using objective measures of eating speed 24 , However, previous research has reported a lack of high agreement between eating speed assessed using this self-reported questionnaire and objectively measured eating speed at an individual level This latter questionnaire may reduce the bias caused by subjective self-evaluation of eating speed.

This self-reported questionnaire is a psychometrically valid and reliable measure of eating behavior. In the laboratory setting, eating speed has been assessed using various objective measures, including continuous weighing of foods using an electronic balance 48 and overall food consumption time 13 , The types and amounts of test foods vary among studies 13 , There is no standardized protocol for assessing eating speed 45 , which limits comparability across studies.

Future studies should aim to develop a standardized protocol and use it to attempt to replicate the present findings. However, the number of female participants in this study is comparable to the number of female participants in some previous studies 17 , These associations in women were similar to those in men, although they were not significant.

Thus, the lack of significant results for women mean that the findings should be interpreted with caution.

Furthermore, it was cross-sectional in nature, and thus conclusions cannot be drawn regarding causal relationships of eating speed with abdominal fat mass and adiponectin concentration. We did not have information regarding the type or amount of food consumed, and therefore we could not test the effects of the diet consumed on the relationship between eating speed and abdominal fat mass.

Finally, the study sample was limited to workers in agriculture and related industries and their families living in a rural area of Japan, which may reduce the external validity of the findings. In conclusion, in the present study, we have shown that rapid eating is associated with larger VFT and SFT areas and lower adiponectin concentration in men.

In contrast, while rapid eating was found to be associated only with BMI, eating speed was found not to be associated with abdominal fat mass or adiponectin concentration in women. The present findings are consistent with previous findings that rapid eating is associated with the development of obesity and overweight, and imply that adult men may benefit more from reducing their eating speed.

World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. Kolay, E. et al. Self-reported eating speed is associated with indicators of obesity in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Healthcare 9 , Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Otsuka, R. Eating fast leads to obesity: Findings based on self-administered questionnaires among middle-aged Japanese men and women. Wuren, Endoh, K. Eating rate as risk for body mass index and waist circumference obesity with appropriate confounding factors: A cross-sectional analysis of the Shizuoka-Sakuragaoka J-MICC Study.

Asia Pac. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Hurst, Y. Effects of changes in eating speed on obesity in patients with diabetes: A secondary analysis of longitudinal health check-up data.

BMJ Open 8 , e Takayama, S. Rate of eating and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes or hyperlipidaemia. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Garcidueñas-Fimbres, T. Eating speed, eating frequency, and their relationships with diet quality, adiposity, and metabolic syndrome, or its components.

Nutrients 13 , Xie, Q. Effect of eating habits on obesity in adolescents: A study among Chinese college students. Article Google Scholar.

Leong, S. Faster self-reported speed of eating is related to higher body mass index in a nationwide survey of middle-aged women. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Oda-Montecinos, C. Eating behaviors are risk factors for the development of overweight. N 33 , — Article CAS Google Scholar.

Ochiai, H. The impact of eating quickly on anthropometric variables among schoolgirls: A prospective cohort study in Japan. Public Health 24 , — Zhu, B. Association between eating speed and metabolic syndrome in a three-year population-based cohort study.

Ekuni, D. Self-reports of eating quickly are related to a decreased number of chews until first swallow, total number of chews, and total duration of chewing in young people. Oral Biol. Shuster, A. The clinical importance of visceral adiposity: A critical review of methods for visceral adipose tissue analysis.

Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Neeland, I. Body fat distribution and incident cardiovascular disease in obese adults. Fox, C. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments. Circulation , 39—48 Iwasaki, T.

Self-reported behavior of eating quickly is correlated with visceral fat area in Japanese non-obese adults. PubMed Google Scholar. Mochizuki, K. Self-reported faster eating is positively associated with accumulation of visceral fat in middle-aged apparently healthy Japanese men.

Fogel, A. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: Results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes GUSTO cohort.

Peng, J. The role of adiponectin in cardiovascular disease. Lei, X. Adiponectin and metabolic cardiovascular diseases: Therapeutic opportunities and challenges. Genes Dis. Arita, Y. Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity.

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