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Creatine for reducing mental fatigue

Creatine for reducing mental fatigue

Article PubMed PubMed Redjcing Google Scholar Nemets B, Levine J. Article Google Scholar Dolan E, Gualano B, Rawson ES. Aug 2 ; 3 Konstantinos K Triantafyllidis.

Creatine for reducing mental fatigue -

Like muscle, human brain function is highly energy intensive. Therefore, it makes sense that the brain would also use creatine as a supplemental energy source.

In fact, research revealed that creatine is so important to human brain function that the brain even synthesizes its own creatine. The knowledge that creatine was a bioactive substance in the brain inspired a new generation of research questions: Could creatine supplementation, proven to improve muscle function, also improve brain function?

If so, which brain functions and people are most likely to benefit? With nearly two decades of creatine research on brain function now complete, the initial results appear promising see Figure 1 3 :.

Once limited to populations seeking better athletic performance, creatine has come full circle as a health supplement. Although additional clinical trials are required to optimize dosing patterns and to identify persons most likely to benefit, evolving creatine research is showing promise as a supplement potentially helpful for a range of mood and cognitive symptoms.

There is also no scientific basis to use any form of creatine for brain health other than creatine monohydrate—the cheapest and most proven form of creatine other forms of creatine are more expensive and may not provide the same effects 6.

Chilibeck PD, Kaviani M, Candow DG, Zello GA. Effect of creatine supplementation during resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscular strength in older adults: a meta-analysis. Open Access J Sports Med.

doi: Dechent P, Pouwels PJ, Wilken B, Hanefeld F, Frahm J. Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate. Am J Physiol. Forbes SC, Cordingley DM, Cornish SM, Gualano B, Roschel H, Ostojic SM, Rawson ES, Roy BD, Prokopidis K, Giannos P, Candow DG.

Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Brain Function and Health. Prokopidis K, Giannos P, Triantafyllidis KK, Kechagias KS, Forbes SC, Candow DG.

Effects of creatine supplementation on memory in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Rev. Kious BM, Kondo DG, Renshaw PF. Med Sci Sports Exer. Watanabe A , Kato N , Kato T.

Effects of creatine on mental fatigue and cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation. Neurosci Res. Pires LAM , Forbes SC , Candow DG , et al. Creatine supplementation on cognitive performance following exercise in female Muay Thai athletes.

Rawson ES , Lieberman HR , Walsh TM , et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults. Alves CRR , Merege Filho CAA , Benatti FB , et al. Creatine supplementation associated or not with strength training upon emotional and cognitive measures in older women: a randomized double-blind study.

PLoS One. Merege-Filho CAA , Otaduy MCG , de Sá-Pinto AL , et al. Does brain creatine content rely on exogenous creatine in healthy youth? A proof-of-principle study.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Rae C , Digney AL , McEwan SR , et al. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proc R Soc Lond B.

Burke DG , Chilibeck PD , Parise G , et al. Effect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetarians. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 35 : — Kaviani M , Shaw K , Chilibeck PD.

Benefits of creatine supplementation for vegetarians compared to omnivorous athletes: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Page MJ , McKenzie JE , Bossuyt PM , et al. The PRISMA statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews.

Syst Rev. Laakso M , Hiltunen Y , Könönen M , et al. Decreased brain creatine levels in elderly apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers. J Neural Transm Vienna. Seper V , Korovljev D , Todorovic N , et al. Guanidinoacetate-creatine supplementation improves functional performance and muscle and brain bioenergetics in the elderly: a pilot study.

Ann Nutr Metab. Balestrino M , Adriano E. Beyond sports: efficacy and safety of creatine supplementation in pathological or paraphysiological conditions of brain and muscle. Med Res Rev. Syrotuik DG , Bell GJ. Acute creatine monohydrate supplementation: a descriptive physiological profile of responders vs.

J Strength Cond Res ; 18 : — Brosnan ME , Brosnan JT. The role of dietary creatine. Saks V , Kongas O , Vendelin M , et al. Acta Physiol Scand.

Solis MY , Artioli GG , Otaduy MCG , et al. Effect of age, diet, and tissue type on PCr response to creatine supplementation. J Appl Physiol. Age-dependent brain activation during forward and backward digit recall revealed by fMRI.

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Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Abstract. Journal Article. Effects of creatine supplementation on memory in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Konstantinos Prokopidis , Konstantinos Prokopidis. is with the Department of Musculoskeletal Biology, Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences, University of Liverpool.

are with the Society of Meta-Research and Biomedical Innovation. Prokopidis , University of Liverpool, 6 W Derby St, Liverpool L7 3FA, United Kingdom.

E-mail: k. prokopidis liverpool. Oxford Academic. Panagiotis Giannos. is with the Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London.

Konstantinos K Triantafyllidis. Konstantinos S Kechagias. is with the Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Faculty of Medicine. Scott C Forbes. is with the Department of Physical Education Studies, Faculty of Education, Brandon University. Darren G Candow. is with the Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of Regina.

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ageing , cognition , creatine monohydrate , memory , nutrition. Inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria. Open in new tab. Open in new tab Download slide. Flow diagram of the literature search process. Total, both groups. Creatine group. Placebo group. Treatment dosage duration. Memory outcomes. Age of participants.

Effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on overall memory. Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS. Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text. Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

Issue Section:. Download all slides. Supplementary data. The majority of medications for ALS are meant to lessen the severity of symptoms, pain, and fatigue, as there is currently no known cure [ 97 ].

Based on the accumulating body of research showing that creatine supplementation increases muscle performance and muscle accretion primarily in healthy individuals [ 98 ], creatine supplementation has been explored as a possible therapy for patients with ALS [ 99 , ].

Creatine supplementation may protect against neuron loss in the motor cortex and substantia nigra [ ], as well as decrease oxidative stress [ ] and mitochondrial dysfunction [ ], potentially resulting in improved quality of life for patients with ALS.

Indeed, there have been promising results in several animal studies, with multiple reports indicating that creatine supplementation improves motor performance, protects against neuron loss, and extends survival rate in mice [ , ]. In addition to delaying motor deficits and extending survival, Andreassen et al.

If so, these findings may provide some evidence for the potential mechanistic role for how creatine contributes to increased longevity and improved motor performance. However, not all animal models of ALS show positive effects from creatine supplementation as Derave et al.

Overall, despite the collective body of research showing positive effects from creatine supplementation in mice with ALS, results from RCTs in humans with ALS are not as encouraging. However, the creatine dosing protocol resulted in reports of diarrhea and gastrointestinal distress which caused six participants to withdraw.

Further, it should be noted that patients in these studies were in an advanced stage of ALS. It is yet to be determined if creatine may result in improved outcomes if supplemented earlier in the disease process.

Muscular dystrophies are neuromuscular diseases that result in significantly reduced skeletal muscle free creatine and phosphocreatine stores [ , ] and have been linked to lower creatine transporter protein content and impaired creatine uptake and release [ ].

These diseases are X-chromosome linked, affecting primarily male individuals. Both are the result of mutations in the dystrophin gene and often result in progressive muscle weakness, difficulty walking, and eventual cardiac or respiratory failure [ ].

A diagnosis of muscular dystrophy often results in a significantly reduced life expectancy, with fatal outcomes as early as the third decade. Positive effects of creatine supplementation have been observed in mice. Passaquin et al. This was particularly evident in fast-twitch muscle fibers, with no preservatory effect demonstrated in slow-twitch fibers.

Additionally, creatine supplementation restored mitochondrial respiration capacity, which is often impaired in muscular dystrophy. Similarly, Louis et al. Creatine supplementation has also been demonstrated to be beneficial in the mouse model of fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, with observed increases in muscle mass, grip strength, and mitochondrial content [ ].

However, these improvements were only evident when combined with an exercise intervention, suggesting that the combination of exercise and creatine supplementation may help to attenuate muscle atrophy and dysfunction in patients with fascioscapulohomeral muscular dystrophy.

As muscle weakness is a hallmark characteristic of muscular dystrophies, changes in muscle strength have been implemented as the main dependent variable in studies investigating the effect of creatine in patients with dystrophinopathies.

Utilizing a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, Tarnopolsky and colleagues [ ] observed significant improvements in grip strength following 4 months of creatine supplementation in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Additionally, significant improvements in fat-free mass were observed following creatine supplementation. Additionally, no change in joint stiffness was observed during creatine supplementation. Implementing a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, Escolar et al.

Although there was no statistically significant effect of creatine supplementation, the authors noted a disease-modifying effect, which likely did not reach statistical significance owing to the unanticipated strength preservation in the placebo group.

In a week, double-blind, cross-over RCT, Davidson et al. However, no meaningful improvements in body composition or quality of life were noted, and the results were ultimately deemed inconclusive because of the small sample size.

Further, while promising, this study did not investigate the effects of creatine supplementation alone, thus it cannot be definitively determined whether creatine, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid, or glutamine were responsible for the observed improvements.

This contrast seems to indicate that the effects of creatine supplementation may be disease specific and positive results should not be inferred for other types of dystrophies. However, it is currently unknown if the benefits of creatine supplementation in these patient populations are age specific.

Interestingly, beneficial effects of creatine supplementation have been observed in young boys with muscular dystrophies [ , , ], with non-significant effects primarily reported in adults.

Overall, the results from RCTs suggest that short- and moderate-term creatine supplementation is safe, well tolerated, and increases muscle strength in patients with muscular dystrophies [ ]. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease CMT is a group of inherited motor and sensory neuropathies that cause muscle atrophy and weakness in the hands and feet [ ].

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is slowly progressive and incurable. While it is typically not fatal, most patients experience difficulty with muscle stiffness and gait because of foot drop and increased foot supination [ ]. Three studies have assessed the effects of creatine supplementation in patients with CMT.

Doherty et al. Their findings demonstrated no significant differences in activities of daily living scales, body mass, fat-free mass, or body fat percentage after creatine supplementation as compared with placebo.

The same research group then published two studies aimed to test the hypothesis that creatine supplementation would enhance strength and myosin heavy chain content in patients with CMT when combined with resistance training [ , ].

Utilizing a randomized double-blind design, Chetlin et al. The authors reported that creatine supplementation did not enhance outcomes beyond the benefits observed with resistance training alone.

Smith and colleagues [ ] examined whether the combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training would increase the percentage of type I myosin heavy chain content composition, as well as whether myosin isoform changes would correlate with improved chair stand performance in patients with CMT.

The results showed that, when combined with resistance training, creatine supplementation resulted in a decline in type 1 myosin heavy chain content and an increase in type II myosin heavy chain content.

Moreover, these changes were associated with an increase in chair rise performance. While speculative, the data presented by Smith et al.

Given that there are a limited number of therapeutic treatment options available for patients with CMT, more work in this area is needed. Importantly, current therapies for mood-related disorders often fail to adequately support patients.

As such, there is a need to better understand the neurochemical mechanisms of mood disorders. While many studies have used neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy 1 H-MRS to examine neurotransmitter systems such as serotonin [ ], dopamine e.

However, many of these studies often ignore the importance of creatine. Specifically, prior to scanning, the researcher must carefully position a relatively large i.

While newer 1 H-MRS scan sequences have recently been developed to allow researchers to examine metabolite concentrations in multiple brain regions simultaneously, no such studies have yet utilized these sequences. Because of these issues with 1 H-MRS, the relationship between concentrations of creatine in the brain and symptoms of mood disorders is not yet fully understood.

For example, when using 1 H-MRS, no difference was found between 19 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of MDD and 30 healthy controls in concentrations of creatine within the anterior cingulate cortex [ ], or between 18 young individuals with MDD and 18 aged-matched healthy controls in thalamic creatine concentrations [ ].

However, research indicates that concentrations of creatine within the frontal cortex may relate to symptoms of mood disorders. For example, Kondo et al. Furthermore, Faulkner et al. Further, Yue et al. Based on these results, increasing levels of creatine in the prefrontal cortex and perhaps in other brain regions may help to alleviate some of the symptoms of depression and anxiety.

For example, Dechent et al. It is worth noting that Nemets and Levine [ ] report that daily administration creatine monohydrate failed to augment the antidepressant effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, yet this is likely due in part to the fact that the authors compared the effects of i creatine monohydrate 5 g, ii creatine monohydrate 10 g and iii placebo in small groups of only five, four, and nine participants respectively, as well as the fact that these low doses of creatine were administered over only 4 weeks.

Taken together, these results indicate that daily administration of at least 20 g of creatine monohydrate over 4 weeks, or a lower dose 5 g for at least 8 weeks, is needed to alleviate the symptoms of MDD.

Importantly, the BBB has a relatively low permeability for creatine into the human brain, owing in part to the complete absence of a creatine transporter on the feet of astrocytes that line the microcapillary endothelial cells [ ].

Such low permeability may be a contributing factor as to why Kondo et al. Further work is therefore needed to determine the optimal dose and treatment course to produce antidepressant effects. In addition, understanding whether such effects rely upon increasing concentrations of creatine within only the prefrontal cortex, or in other brain regions or the whole brain, would help to optimize this treatment approach.

Being able to determine the mechanisms by which increasing creatine alleviates symptoms of mood disorders may also aid this endeavor. Because neuronal creatine is released from neurons following an action potential and is then taken back into the neuron via the creatine transporter, many researchers consider creatine to be a neurotransmitter [ ].

As such, it may be that alterations in its functioning as a neurotransmitter can promote depression. Further, administration of creatine can increase levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is known to have antidepressant effects [ ]. In addition, because ATP is used to convert creatine to phosphocreatine, low concentrations of creatine are associated with lower release of ATP from astrocytes, which is in turn considered to promote symptoms of depression and anxiety [ , ].

No matter the mechanisms by which brain creatine is associated with mood disorders, it is important to consider the role of individual differences in this putative relationship, particularly because both age [ ] and sex e.

For example, Lind et al. Conversely, several research studies have reported no significant effect of sex upon concentrations of creatine within the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampus, insula, thalamus, inferior parietal cortex, primary and secondary motor cortices, temporal and occipital lobes, precuneus, and cerebellum [ , , , ].

Interestingly though, Tayoshi et al. Because dopamine is a key neurotransmitter within this brain region, and because altered functioning of the dopamine system has been associated with depression and mood disorders [ ], it may be important to examine whether individual differences in sex influence the relationship between creatine and symptoms of mood disorders.

In summary, research to date has indicated that low creatine function within certain brain regions, particularly the prefrontal cortex, may be associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety, and that increasing such function via administration of creatine monohydrate may alleviate these symptoms.

Furthermore, because the BBB has such low permeability for creatine into the brain, it is vital that researchers and clinicians alike can determine the optimal dosage and course required to alleviate the symptoms of mood disorders via administration of creatine monohydrate.

Finally, determining whether individual differences in age, sex, clinical diagnosis, and symptom severity can influence treatment response may help clinicians to alleviate the suffering associated with mood disorders. Creatine supplementation can increase brain creatine content, which over time may help explain some of the promising effects on measures of brain health and function Fig.

Specifically, creatine supplementation has been shown to improve measures of cognition and memory primarily in aging adults and decreases symptoms of sleep deprivation in human and animal populations. Creatine supplementation also shows promise for alleviating some symptoms of TBI, including concussion, and characteristics of muscular dystrophy in humans.

The efficacy of creatine for treating symptoms of depression and anxiety is also encouraging but clinical trials examining the effects of creatine independent of pharmacological interventions on these mood disorders are needed before a consensus can be reached.

Future research is needed to determine the mechanistic effects of long-term creatine supplementation dosing strategies, with and without exercise, on brain function and health. Further, whether there are sex- and age-related differences in response to creatine supplementation remains to be fully determined.

Potential effects of creatine monohydrate on measures of brain function. Creatine enters the mitochondria via MtCKs and converts ATP to PCr through oxidative phosphorylation.

ATP and PCr are able to circulate from the mitochondria back into the cytosol, regulating energy requirements which in turn may enhance brain energy metabolism. ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; CRT, creatine transporter; MtCK, mitochondrial creatine kinase; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; PCr, phosphocreatine.

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Mentwl Hydration for weight loss 3, Reviewed by Creatime Hagan. If you've ever heard of creatine—a powdery nonsteroidal supplement sold in most health food fatigeu likely link creatine to emntal or Sunflower seed oil. Both Creatine for reducing mental fatigue the latter groups often consume mfntal to increase strength Ceatine muscle size. ,ental a swole gym bro was the first mental image the mention of creatine conjured for you, you're correct: Creatine is arguably the most effective legal performance supplement for athletes 1. Although small amounts of creatine can be obtained directly from food primarily fish and beefour muscles also readily absorb creatine from oral supplementation e. Because muscles can use creatine to create adenosine triphosphate ATPthe life-enabling energy source vital to cellular and muscular function. In brief, muscle cells containing more creatine can produce more energy for activities such as running, jumping, and lifting. Konstantinos Hydration for weight loss and Panagiotis Fatigye contributed fattigue to this work. Creatine for reducing mental fatigue an mentap perspective, menntal brain is very metabolically demanding. It is Effective calorie burning blend documented that creatine plays a key role fatibue brain bioenergetics. There is some evidence that creatine supplementation can augment brain creatine stores, which could increase memory. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials RCTs was conducted to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on memory performance in healthy humans. The literature was searched through the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases from inception until September Twenty-three eligible RCTs were initially identified. Creatine for reducing mental fatigue

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