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Antiviral virus-fighting properties

Antiviral virus-fighting properties

In Ayurveda, the rhizome virus-fightnig this herb is used from pre-historic time because of Sodium-free diet Antiviral virus-fighting properties, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, Antiviral virus-fighting properties anticancer Antigiral. search Search by keyword or author Search. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics endorses universal immunization, [65] they note that physicians should respect parents' refusal to vaccinate their children after sufficient advising and provided the child does not face a significant risk of infection.

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Keeping in view Antviral global burden of virks-fighting infections as well as medication cost, there is an urgent need to develop Antivirzl strategies to search for affordable and effective propdrties drugs.

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Researchers have reported that numerous porperties plants propertise antiviral activities, vifus-fighting as Andrographis paniculata Curcumin and Anxiety, Lindera chuniiDioscorea bulbiferaWistaria Antiviral virus-fighting propertiesXanthoceras sorbifoli, and Aegle marmelos showed remarkable anti-HIV proprties Kaur oroperties al.

Moreover, a number Blueberry gardening tips natural or viurs-fighting compounds virus-fightin to different chemical groups have been reported for their Metabolism and muscle building anti-HBV activities Antviral et al.

There is much to gain and learn about Endurance nutrition for athletes qualities of plants Angiviral the pre-existing oroperties of traditional Antviral that Antiviiral be evaluated for various applications as potential antiviral Antivoral.

It is convenient to find plants that can be researched upon; however, what is required is the traditional knowledge that must be translated into pharmaceutical application in formulating novel drugs, finally taking it from the laboratory bench to the bedside.

Even though numerous medicinal plants as well as plant derived metabolites have been reported for their antiviral effects, there lacks adequate combined substantial reports of pre-existing researches with mechanistic insights Martin and Ernst, In most of the cases, due to lack of any substantial compilation report, the researchers conducted the similar studies as preliminary screening prior to design the advanced stages of discovery of potent drug molecule from plant.

This is a complete loss of time, money and efforts. Only literatures written in English language were considered due to language barrier. In this review, studies covering following types of data were included and extracted: medicinal plants with antiviral activity along with their distribution, availability, traditional and folklore use, in vitro and in vivo studies of plant extracts and isolated bioactive compounds, their structural activity relationship and mechanism of antiviral activities.

The focus of this review was on potential antiviral metabolites indigenous to and cultivated in Bangladesh. Due to lack of adequate scientific data regarding antiviral activities of medicinal plants collected from Bangladesh, available studies conducted on similar plant species in different countries are considered.

A total of 46 antiviral plants from 25 families were substantiated in Table 1. According to families, medicinal plants were categorized. About 36 bioactive metabolites with significant effects and their underlying mechanisms of these antiviral activities were summarized in Table 3.

TABLE 1. Overview of the effects of medicinal plants extracts on common viral infections. Acanthus ilicifolius L. belonging to family Acanthaceae, is a mangrove plant with numerous medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities.

This medicinal plant exhibits potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus. A study performed on duck model revealed that alcoholic extract of whole plant is capable of reducing the viral load by interfering DNA replication, but the exact mechanism was not explained well Wei et al.

Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees belongs to Acanthaceae family as well. It possesses excellent neutralizing activity against the human immunodeficiency virus HIV.

Andrographolide is a phytochemical isolated from this plant which has been reported for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus HSVHIV, flaviviruses, and pestiviruses Jayakumar et al.

Besides, this bioactive compound has been reported for inhibition of the expressions of HSV-I viral envelope glycoproteins D and C Wiart et al. This compound is now under clinical trial phase-IV for treatment of bronchitis Table 2. Justicia adhatoda L. is another member of Acanthaceae family which is native to Bangladesh.

It is known as malabar nut, adhatoda or vasaka and traditionally used in cold, cough and respiratory disorders from ancient times. Methanolic extract of the leaves of this medicinal plant has been reported for inhibitory activities against influenza and herpes simplex virus HSV.

Six alkaloids namely vasicoline, vasicolinone, vasicinone, vasicine, adhatodine and anisotine have been isolated from the leaves of J. In silico bioassay demonstrated that anisotine has significantly inhibited the main protease Mpro of SARS-CoV Mpro mediates the cleavage of polyprotein to get matured and acquire infectivity.

The assay has also suggested that inhibitory potential of this alkaloid is higher compared to the inhibitory activities of lopinavir and darunavir established antiviral drugs Ghosh et al.

Achyranthes aspera L. belonging to the family Amaranthaceae, is a medicinal plant of the Garo tribe population in the Madhupur forest region of Bangladesh. It is a well-known folk medicine not only in Bangladesh but also in Indian subcontinent.

It contains a potent antiviral compound named oleanolic acid which has been reported to work against herpes simplex virus type-I, HSV-I EC 50 6. Both the plant extract and oleanolic acid inhibited the early stage of multiplication, specifically 2—6 h of post infection of the viruses.

Allium sativum L. In Bangladesh, it is cultivated all over the country as a fundamental spice used in cooking. A study has been documented that various extracts of A. sativum have inhibitory activities against adenovirus-3 ADV-3adenovirus ADV Khanal et al. Numerous antiviral phytocompounds have been isolated from a number of extracts of the bulb of A.

sativum including ajoene, allicin, alliin, allyl methyl thiosulfinate, allitridin, diallyl sulfide, garlicin, and lectins. It also inhibits viral attachment to host cell and reverse transcriptase of HIV-I.

Apart from these, it induces apoptosis of HCMV infected cells. Allicin and allyl methyl thiosulfinate inhibit the entry of HSV-I and II, PIV-3, VV, VSV and HRV-2 by disrupting viral envelope and cell membrane.

Alliin, diallyl sulfide, and garlicin work against DENV by diminishing inflammation through suppressing oxidative stress. Allitridin has excellent multiple effects against HCMV. The underlying mechanisms of these activities include inhibition of viral DNA synthesis by interfering viral immediate-early antigen expression, inhibition of viral replication by suppressing viral IEG gene transcription, and enhancement of Treg expansion and Treg-mediated anti-HCMV immunosuppression Alejandria, ; Wang et al.

Mangifera indica L. is one of the most common plants for fruit considering as the king of all fruits in Bangladesh. It belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. This fruit is packed of antioxidants and other nutritious biomolecules. The plant extract has been reported for its activity against influenza virus.

Apart from this, it contains a bioactive compound named mangiferin having potential efficacy for inhibiting the duplication of HSV-I and antagonizing the cytopathic effects of HIV Al-Rawi et al. Alstonia scholaris L. This plant is a rich source of total alkaloids having remarkable anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities.

A study demonstrated that the total alkaloids present in this plant exhibited efficacy to fight against IAV. The mechanism of this antiviral activity involves inhibition of viral replication in A cells and Uderived macrophagesreduction of cytokine and chemokine generation at the mRNA and protein levels, as well as interfering the activation of pattern recognition receptor PRR - and IFN-activated signal transduction in A cells.

Along with these, increment of survival rate and reduction of the viral titer were observed in lethal PR8 mouse model Zhou et al. Another important species of Apocynaceae family is Calotropis gigantea L.

Among them, the lignin glycoside was efficacious against H 1 N 1 strain of both of the subtypes A and B IC 50 value of Aloe vera L. is a well-known medicinal plant belonging to Asphodelaceae family and found almost everywhere in Bangladesh.

vera gel 0. This study has demonstrated that the gel is effective as topical treatment option for oral HSV-I infection Rezazadeh et al. An in silico study revealed that treatment with ethanolic extract of A.

vera significantly reduces of the replication of IAV along with inhibition of viral matrix protein 1 M1matrix protein 2 M2and hemagglutinin HA mRNA synthesis, and expressions of viral protein M1, M2, and HA. Numerous potent antiviral bioactive compounds, such as quercetin, catechin hydrate, and kaempferol were isolated which have inhibited IAV H1N1 or H3N2 induced autophagy, M2 viral mRNA synthesis, and M2 protein expression.

Apart from these, in silico docking simulation study stated that these bioactive compounds have higher binding affinity for M2 protein compared to established M2 protein inhibitors Choi et al. Recently, COVID pandemic has created worldwide burden because of the unavailability of the suitable medical treatment option.

Quercetin is under clinical trial for prophylaxis as well as management of the symptoms of this infection Table 2. Furthermore, A. vera has been reported to contain 9-dihydroxylO- z -cinnamoylmethoxy-aloesin, aloeresin and feralolide which showed potential to inhibit the main protease 3CLpro responsible for the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in an in silico investigation.

Eclipta prostrata L.

: Antiviral virus-fighting properties

What Are Antiviral Foods? Surayot Prpoerties, Wang J, Antiviral virus-fighting properties P, Kuntiya A, Tabarsa M, Lee Y, et al. Viruses 12, In propegties nutshell: Antiviral virus-fighting properties propertise assembly of the vaccinia virion. Reviewed by: Kit Leong CheongShantou Allergy relief products, Antiviral virus-fighting properties Bin DuHebei Normal University of Science and Technology, China. Natural products from Streptomyces spp. The emergence of antivirals is the product of a greatly expanded knowledge of the genetic and molecular function of organisms, allowing biomedical researchers to understand the structure and function of viruses, major advances in the techniques for finding new drugs, and the pressure placed on the medical profession to deal with the human immunodeficiency virus HIVthe cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS.
Introduction Identification of Inonotus propertiees polysaccharide ;roperties broad-spectrum Antiviral virus-fighting properties activity Antiviral virus-fighting properties Liver detoxification system viruses. Propertiea the enveloped BVDV the infectivity reduction was even greater of 4—5 log Tyo et al. You should talk to a medical provider about getting treatment for COVID if you fall into one of the two categories above. Firstly, it binds to a target cell. Cagno, V.
What to know about antiviral drugs and products

Polysaccharides from each sources have different branched chains, composition of monosaccharides, molecular weight MW , and structural conformations Polysaccharides are the most abundant biological macromolecules in nature and can be obtained from every living organisms including animals 24 , plants 25 , and microorganisms In living cells, polysaccharides are involved in structure, storage, adhesion, and cell recognition Microorganisms including archaea, bacteria, fungi, and microalgae produced diverse polysaccharides with different structures and functions.

Moreover, microorganisms synthesize polysaccharides and secrete them to the outside, these are called exopolysaccharides EPS. Their functions include cell adhesion, migration of bacteria in groundwater, protection from predators and white blood cells, protection from undesired environments extreme environments , intercellular signal transduction, and molecular recognition 28 , Microbial polysaccharides are composed of not only monosaccharides, but also proteins, lipids, metal ions, extracellular DNA eDNA , and other organic and inorganic compounds Furthermore, polysaccharides derived from microorganisms, especially marine microorganisms may include sulfate groups, and are called sulfated polysaccharides Sulfated polysaccharides are negatively-charged biopolymers found in the cell wall of marine algae green, brown, and red algae.

Sulfate groups are linked to the sugar structure's backbone to stabilize the structure in extreme environments, especially high salinity Sulfated polysaccharides can be founded not only in marine microalgae and macroalgae, but also in marine animals, and marine bacteria Microbial polysaccharides and sulfated polysaccharides show various biological activities such as immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities In particular, the antiviral activity of microbial polysaccharides has been studied, showing in several cases an inhibitory effect against various animal, human, and plant pathogenic viruses 33 — Many studies have reported that natural and modified polysaccharides could inhibit various virus infections Some microbial polysaccharides had antiviral activity against various viruses including Herpes simplex , influenza, Newcastle disease NDV , Varicella zoster VZV , human immunodeficiency viruses HIV , and human adenoviruses 37 — According to their biological activities, the bioactive polysaccharides can be applied as a bioactive ingredients to improve the immune system and reduce the damage caused by viruses Among microbial polysaccharides, EPS produced by lactic acid bacteria LAB have been recognized as GRAS, which allows their use in food without the need for regulatory oversight in the USA Although bioactive polysaccharides have been derived from plants, many researchers have investigated the characteristics, compositions, properties, biological activities of novel polysaccharides from various microorganisms There are many advantages to using microbial polysaccharides compared to other polysaccharides.

For example, the microbial polysaccharide production can be done using optimized conditions indoors. Microbes grow easily and fast with a high yield of polysaccharides. The recovery process of polysaccharides is simple. Moreover, microbial growth media are simple and non-toxic.

If agricultural wastes are used as microbial growth media, the cost of the production is often decreased 32 , Microbial polysaccharides are biocompatible and biodegradable, and have no known toxic effects As mentioned above, microbial polysaccharides show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities; therefore, microbial polysaccharides are attractive as antiviral agents or bioactive ingredients to treat viral infectious diseases, especially COVID This review focuses on microbial polysaccharides with antiviral and immunomodulatory activities and their antiviral mechanisms, and provides the potential approach to use microbial polysaccharides as bioactive ingredients.

Algae are eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, often microorganisms. Some algae are unicellular, but some of them are multicellular organisms lacking of specialized tissues. Both micro- and macroalgae are good sources of biomedical compounds, especially polysaccharides Algal polysaccharides are nontoxic, edible, biocompatible, biodegradable, and easily available; therefore, these biopolymers have been applied in many fields such as the food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries Algal polysaccharides have several pharmaceutical properties, including anticancer 50 , antioxidant 51 , antimicrobial 52 , anti-inflammatory 53 , and immunomodulatory activities Moreover, several algae, especially marine algae, can produced sulfate polysaccharides, which have different beneficial biological activities 50 , 55 — Different algal polysaccharides possess a variety of structures, composition, and conformations, which influence their properties A summary of algal polysaccharides with antiviral potential are shown in Table 1.

Most of the algal polysaccharides have the ability to decrease viral infections by blocking the attachment of virus particles to host cell surfaces. In this line, three polysaccharides extracted from Sargassum trichophyllum a brown alga were characterized as laminaran, alginate and fucoidan, observing that only fucoidan showed an antiviral effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 HSV-2 Sargassum henslowianum produced antiviral fucoidans against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 For instance, the authors observed how two fractions of the fucoidans SHAP-1 and SHAP-2 could inhibit HSV-1 with IC 50 of 0.

Both SHAP-1 and SHAP-2 showed higher antiviral activity against HSV-2 with IC 50 of 0. These fucoidans interfered with the virions' attachment to host cells Moreover, low MW fucoidan fractions LF1 and LF2 from Laminaria japonica could inhibit I-type influenza virus, adenovirus and parainfluenza virus I in vitro.

The IC 50 for LF1 were 0. Fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus also showed higher antiviral activity against NDV with lower cytotoxicity than Ribavirin, an antiviral drug, preventing this polysaccharide the viral infection at early steps by blocking the F protein In addition, Scytosiphon lomentaria , a brown seaweed, also produced fucoidans with antiviral activity, in particular, they had the ability to block HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections Moreover, a fucoidan with high levels of sulfate groups also showed the highest antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides extracted from some red algae, such as Chondrus, Gigartina, Hypnea , and Eucheuma spp.

These polysaccharides showed an antiviral activity against several viruses. For instance, González et al. Moreover, these authors also showed the antiviral activity of carrageenan against encephalomyocarditis virus EMCV , a naked virus, but they did not observe significant effects on poliovirus or adenovirus.

The carrageenan interfered with the viral protein synthesis. Various types of carrageenans also have shown antiviral activities against hepatitis A virus HAV. λ-Carrageenan from G. skottsbergii showed an inhibitory effect on both bovine herpesvirus type 1 BoHV-1 and Suid herpesvirus type 1 SuHV The IC 50 of this polysaccharide was 0.

The red micro algae, Porphyridium spp. In this line, the sulfated polysaccharide SP-2a obtained from a brown alga, Sargassum patens , exhibited strong antiviral property against different strains of HSV The EC 50 of SP-2a against the standard, acyclovir ACV -sensitive and -resistant strains of HSV-1 were 5.

The SP-2a had a weak virucidal activity against the standard and ACV-sensitive strains of HSV-1, but not the ACV-resistant strain. p-KG03 is a sulfated exopolysaccharide with an average MW of 1.

The p-KG03 could inhibit EMCV in HeLa cells with an EC 50 of In addition, the p-KG03 also showed antiviral activity against influenza A virus at the virus adsorption step, but did not inhibit all influenza B virus isolates.

The EC 50 for p-KG03 against different strains of influenza A virus H1N1: PR8 and Tw; H3N2: Se ranged from 0. Lee et al. The naviculan is a heteropolysaccharide consisting of fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, and sulfate with an average MW of ~2.

It is a broad-spectrum antiviral against HSV-1, HSV-2, and influenza A virus with IC 50 of 14, 7. Moreover, it could also interfere with the cell-cell fusion of HIV gp and CD4-expressing HeLa cells.

Therefore, it might prevent HIV infections. Bacteria including cyanobacteria or blue-green algae have the ability to synthesize polysaccharides for various purposes such as storage, cell protection, and adhesion.

Polysaccharides accumulated in cells are called intracellular polysaccharides ICP. While those outside of cell are called extracellular polysaccharides or EPS.

The latter are secreted by cells or produced extracellularly using cell wall-anchored enzymes Bacterial polysaccharides show biological bioactive activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory 91 — They showed an inhibitory effect against various viruses, both DNA and RNA viruses.

For example, Arthrospira platensis formerly Spirulina platensis produced calcium spirulan, a sulfated polysaccharide, with antiviral activity against several enveloped viruses.

The calcium spirulan composed of rhamnose, ribose, mannose, fructose, galactose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, sulfate, and calcium.

This polysaccharide showed antiviral activity against HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus HCMV , measles, mumps, influenza A, and HIV-1 viruses by inhibiting virus penetration Spirulan-like substances extracted from A. platensis showed strong antiviral activity against HCMV, HSV-1, human herpesvirus type 6 HHV-6 , and HIV Their mechanisms depended on the type of virus.

For HCMV, the inhibition occurred at intracellular steps, especially the viral protein synthesis step EPS from A. platensis also inhibited koi herpesviruses KHV. Reichert et al. The virus infections were blocked when nostoflan was added at the same time as viral infections.

Therefore, nostoflan blocked the viruses at the virus adsorption stage. The IC 50 values of nostoflan for HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, and influenza A viruses were 0. EPS26a from Lactobacillus sp. could completely inhibit human adenovirus type 5 HAdV-5 formation and release Bacterial polysaccharides also indirectly inhibited virus infections by modulation of the immune response.

For instance, an EPS produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLLR-1 activated the Toll-like receptor 3 TLR3 and the expression of interferon IFN -α, IFN-β, MxA, and RNase L in porcine intestinal epithelial PIE cells, which was associated with the innate antiviral immune response Mizuno et al.

Antiviral bacterial polysaccharides are also shown in Table 1. Fungi are unicellular-to-multicellular eukaryotic microorganisms. They can produce a plethora of biologically active compounds, especially secondary metabolites.

Similar to algae and bacteria, fungal polysaccharides primary metabolites also showed antiviral activity. Fungal polysaccharides, such as glucan, chitin, mannan, PSK or lentinan, showed antiviral potential against animal, human, and plant viruses — Fungal polysaccharides with antiviral activity are summarized in Table 1.

Porodaedalea pini formerly known as Phellinus pini produced two antiviral polysaccharides EP-AV1 and EP-AV2 against HSV-1 and coxsackie virus B3 CVB3 in Vero and HeLa cells, respectively.

The EP-AV2 with a lower MW ~ kDa showed more potent antiviral activity than EP-AV1 ~1, kDa against CVB3. These polysaccharides specifically inhibited HSV-1 more than CVB3 as indicated by their EC 50 values.

The EC 50 values of EP-AV1 and EP-AV2 for HSV-1 were 0. Furthermore, a polysaccharide extracted from the mycelium and fruiting body of Lentides edodes was able to inhibit poliovirus type 1 PV-1 and bovine herpes virus type 1 BoHV-1 with IC 50 values of 0.

In another study, Grifola frondosa mycelia were evaluated as a source of antiviral polysaccharides, observing that it had the antiviral polysaccharide, GFP1.

This polysaccharide was a heteropolysaccharide containing glucose and fucose with a MW of ~ Zhao et al. The GFP1 suppressed the viral protein expression and viral RNA genome synthesis.

Fungal polysaccharides also showed important antiviral properties against animal viruses. For example, a polysaccharide from L. edodes , called lentinan comprised of glucose, mannose, and galactose with MW of ~3. The LNT-I acted both direct inactivation and inhibition of viral replication with Inonotus obliquus , chaga mushroom, also produced broad-spectrum antiviral polysaccharides against feline viruses.

The polysaccharides suppressed infections of feline calicivirus FCV , feline herpesvirus 1 FHV-1 , feline panleukopenia FPV , feline coronavirus FCoV , and feline influenza FIV, H3N2, and H5N6 viruses.

Therefore, polysaccharides from different species show various biological activities with different levels of action. Sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine microalgae and seaweeds showed many different bioactive properties and were effective against viruses at low concentrations, compared to other polysaccharides.

In addition, bacteria and fungi are easily grow on simple media or agricultural wastes. The production can be done using controllable conditions and they produce high amounts of polysaccharides. Therefore, it would also benificial if the bioactivities and physicochemical properties of bacterial and fungal polysaccharides could be modified.

The molecular modification of polysaccharides is an alternative approach to modulate their properties. In viral replication, there are 6 major steps during the infection: 1 virus attachment, 2 penetration, 3 uncoating, 4 genome replication and protein synthesis, 5 viral assembly, and 6 release of new virions Different microbial polysaccharides have different antiviral mechanisms depending on virus types.

The polysaccharides mostly prevented the initial steps of the virus life cycle. However, some microbial polysaccharides could inhibit viral replication and protein translation.

While others showed immune-enhancing activity, especially antiviral immune responses, which prevent virus infections and reduce disease severity 31 , Microbial polysaccharides, especially sulfated polysaccharides, have a negative charge that can interact directly with the viral surfaces.

The virucidal activity of microbial polysaccharides is caused by theses interactions The complexes interfere with the viral infection process, reducing viral proliferation in host cells Figure 2.

For example, polysaccharides extracted from Auricularia auricular , a basidiomycete mushroom, can inhibit NDV in CEF cells. During the process of adding polysaccharides and virus simultaneously, the virus inhibitory rates were higher than pre- and post-addition of the polysaccharides.

These polysaccharides might be combined with virus particles to block virus attachment to host cells Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides also directly blocked feline virus virions FCV, FHV-1, FPV, feline coronavirus FCoV, and FIV.

These polysaccharides were mixed with the viruses for 1 h before adding to the cell lines, decreasing significantly the viral infectivity compared to untreated viruses Viruses bind to a host cell surface using electrostatic interactions. Some microbial polysaccharides mimic virus particles.

Microbial polysaccharides, especially sulfated polysaccharides, are strongly anionic and bind to the positively charged host cell receptors blocking virus attachment, which prevents virus infection Figure 3 7. Figure 3. The inhibition mechanism of inhibiting virus adsorption and penetration.

Many microbial polysaccharides act at this step. For example, a polysaccharide SP-2a from S. Human influenza virus H was blocked by sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria lemaneiformis , a red alga, at virus adsorption and replication on host cells.

The polysaccharides at Microbial polysaccharides, especially the low MW polysaccharides, show antiviral effects on infected host cells.

They interfere directly with enzymes associated with the viral replication and inhibit other intracellular targets as presented in Figure 4. Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharide that are available from most of red seaweeds.

These polysaccharides show a broad-spectrum antiviral activity. González et al. When carrageenan was added 1 h after HSV-1 infection, viral proteins were not detected, whereas when carrageenan was added immediately, viral proteins were detected.

Furthermore, polysaccharide GFP1 from G. frondosa , which was composed of glucose and fucose with a MW of The GFP1 was effective in inhibiting EV71 when it was added before or shortly after the viral inoculation. The viral RNA synthesis and VP1 protein were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner Figure 4.

The inhibition mechanism by interfering with viral genome replication and protein synthesis. During virus infection in animals, the body induces the immune responses to defend against viral infection. The responses regulate immune cells such as natural killer NK cells and macrophages, and increase the production of cytokines, i.

The microbial polysaccharides interact with cell receptors on the macrophage and NK cell, and then activate the cells using the nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK signaling pathways.

These proteins are inducible factors, which increases the gene expression of various cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, and other proteins involving both innate and adaptive immunity The IFN secreted from activated immune cells triggers activation of other immune cells including NK cells, macrophages, and T-cell lymphocytes, which have important roles in the host immune system and antiviral responses.

Meanwhile, microbial polysaccharides can activate NK cells that non-specifically kill virus-infected cells by secreting perforins and granzymes Figure 5. Figure 5. The modulation of the antiviral immune response by activation of macrophage and NK cell using the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

Several polysaccharides can enhance the antiviral immune responses, thus reducing the number of virus particles and the severity of diseases. For example, an EPS extracted from S. thermophilus ST was able to induce the expression of IFN-β, IL-6, and CXCL10 in response to TLR3 stimulation.

These immune factors are associated with antiviral immune responses, which induce the recruitment and activation of immune cells to struggle pathogens Moreover, L. delbrueckii OLLR-1 produced immunomodulatory EPS. These EPS activated TLR3 and induced the expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, MxA, and RNase L.

The latter two factors are known as antiviral factors Polysaccharides also showed immune-enhancing activity. Ren et al. edodes mycelia could modulate the immune response by up-regulating the expression of IFN-1 and IFN-γ to prevent IHNV infection.

In addition, an acidic polysaccharide APS from Cordyceps militaris enhanced TNF-α, IFN-γ, and nitric oxide NO production, and induced the expression of several cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, IL, and TNF-α.

These cytokines have the potential to prevent influenza A virus infection Cao et al. japonica which could increase IFN-α secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Polysaccharides derived from different sources showed several unique characteristics, properties, and bioactivities at different levels.

Their MW, compositions, functional groups, and structural conformations including type of linkage and degree of branching associate with their biological properties, especially antiviral and immunomodulatory activities.

Moreover, extraction and purification methods affect the compositions of polysaccharides; therefore, these factors also influence biological activities of the polysaccharides Table 2.

Some microbial polysaccharides from various sources with different characteristics and bioactivities. Several studies have reported that sulfated polysaccharides could exhibit several biological activities antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities , so the sulfate contents could be an important factor affecting antiviral and other bioactivities.

Sulfation has been used for enhancing various biological activities of polysaccharides , For example, a marine Pseudomonas sp. WAK-1 produces extracellular glycosaminoglycan A1 and sulfated polysaccharide A2 with antiviral activity.

Matsuda et al. The over-sulfated polysaccharides were called A1S and A2S, respectively. From the results, over-sulfated polysaccharides A1S and A2S showed higher antiviral activity against influenza A virus than the natural polysaccharides A1 and A2.

Moreover, a xylogalactofucan sulfated polysaccharide from a brown alga Sphacelaria indica also exhibited antiviral activity against HSV The sulfate contents of the polysaccharide affected the antiviral property.

Bandyopadhyay et al. The IC 50 values of natural and artificially over-sulfated polysaccharides were 1. Furthermore, Ponce et al. The whole extract A of S. lomentaria was fractionated to yield fractions A0, A5, A10, A20, A30, and A40, with different components, MW, and monosaccharide composition.

A0 was soluble and the fraction A5 was an uronofucoidan. A10—A40 were galactofucans and showed antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 with IC 50 values in the range 0.

Among the 4 galactofucan fractions, A30 pure galactofucan contained the highest sulfate content A30 showed the strongest antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 with IC 50 values of 0. Therefore, the low content of uronic acids and the high content of sulfate was associated with the antiviral activity of these polysaccharides.

In conclusion, sulfate content is an important factor influencing biological activities. Adding sulfate groups into polysaccharide structures led to enhance bioactivities, whereas desulfation decreased their bioactivities.

The MW of polysaccharides also influenced their biological properties. Polysaccharides with low MW could easily pass through target cells to act inside the cells. Moreover, the low MW polysaccharides might bind better to cell receptors to inactivate or activate the target cells Some polysaccharides with lower MW showed high biological activities, but some polysaccharides with higher MW were better.

For example, Surayot et al. In addition, Ponce et al. On the contrary, high molecular weight carrageenans from different rea algae Chondrus armatus, Kappaphycus alvarezii , and Tichocarpus crinitus had effective antiviral activity While low molecular weight LMW derivatives 1.

Therefore, the antiviral activity of these polysaccharides depended on their molecular weight To enhance the biological activities, natural microbial polysaccharides need molecular modification of their structure, size, and functional groups to optimize activity For instance, Surayot et al.

confusa TISTR using HCl and heating in hot water or in a microwave oven. The low MW products could induce production of cytokines from RAW Microbial polysaccharides showed various bioactivities, while almost always having any significant side-effects, yet are biodegradable, biocompatible, and cost-effective.

Microbial and algal polysaccharides may be applied as drug resistance solutions. These polysaccharides can combine with other antiviral drugs for preventing drug-resistance strains In addition to the prevention of viral infections, these polysaccharides also prevent recurrence of latent viruses.

For example, calcium spirulan Ca-SP derived from Spirulina platensis was developed as microalgal cream, which effectively prevented the recurrence of HSV-1 Therefore, the bioactive polysaccharides may be used to prevent viral diseases and reduce the risks of diseases, especially COVID SARS-CoV-2 has an S-protein on its envelope and the protein has an important role with binding to a host cell receptor ACE2 8.

Heparin, heparan sulfates, and other sulfated polysaccharides can bind tightly to the S-protein in vitro The binding inhibits viral infection.

Other microbial polysaccharides showed immunomodulatory properties that stimulated the immune system to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several microbes can produce sulfated polysaccharides. According to animal research, fennel may also boost your immune system and decrease inflammation , which may likewise help combat viral infections Garlic is a popular natural remedy for a wide array of conditions, including viral infections.

In a study in 23 adults with warts caused by human papillomavirus HPV , applying garlic extract to affected areas twice daily eliminated the warts in all of them after 1—2 weeks 16 , Additionally, older test-tube studies note that garlic may have antiviral activity against influenza A and B, HIV, HSV-1, viral pneumonia, and rhinovirus, which causes the common cold.

However, current research is lacking Animal and test-tube studies indicate that garlic enhances immune system response by stimulating protective immune cells, which may safeguard against viral infections Lemon balm extract is a concentrated source of potent essential oils and plant compounds that have antiviral activity Test-tube research has shown that it has antiviral effects against avian influenza bird flu , herpes viruses, HIV-1, and enterovirus 71, which can cause severe infections in infants and children 8 , 20 , 21 , 22 , Peppermint is known to have powerful antiviral qualities and commonly added to teas, extracts, and tinctures meant to naturally treat viral infections.

Its leaves and essential oils contain active components, including menthol and rosmarinic acid, which have antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity In a test-tube study, peppermint-leaf extract exhibited potent antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus RSV and significantly decreased levels of inflammatory compounds Rosemary is frequently used in cooking but likewise has therapeutic applications due to its numerous plant compounds, including oleanolic acid Oleanolic acid has displayed antiviral activity against herpes viruses, HIV, influenza , and hepatitis in animal and test-tube studies Plus, rosemary extract has demonstrated antiviral effects against herpes viruses and hepatitis A, which affects the liver 28 , Echinacea is one of the most popularly used ingredients in herbal medicine due to its impressive health-promoting properties.

Many parts of the plant, including its flowers, leaves, and roots, are used for natural remedies. In fact, Echinacea purpurea , a variety that produces cone-shaped flowers , was used by Native Americans to treat a wide array of conditions, including viral infections Several test-tube studies suggest that certain varieties of echinacea , including E.

pallida , E. angustifolia , and E. purpurea , are particularly effective at fighting viral infections like herpes and influenza Notably, E.

purpurea is thought to have immune-boosting effects as well, making it particularly useful for treating viral infections Sambucus is a family of plants also called elder. Elderberries are made into a variety of products, such as elixirs and pills, that are used to naturally treat viral infections like the flu and common cold.

A study in mice determined that concentrated elderberry juice suppressed influenza virus replication and stimulated immune system response Licorice has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and other natural practices for centuries. Glycyrrhizin, liquiritigenin, and glabridin are just some of the active substances in licorice that have powerful antiviral properties Test-tube studies demonstrate that licorice root extract is effective against HIV, RSV, herpes viruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus SARS-CoV , which causes a serious type of pneumonia 35 , 36 , Astragalus is a flowering herb popular in traditional Chinese medicine.

It boasts Astragalus polysaccharide APS , which has significant immune-enhancing and antiviral qualities Test-tube and animal studies show that astragalus combats herpes viruses, hepatitis C, and avian influenza H9 virus 39 , 40 , 41 , Plus, test-tube studies suggest that APS may protect human astrocyte cells, the most abundant type of cell in the central nervous system, from infection with herpes Ginger products, such as elixirs, teas, and lozenges, are popular natural remedies — and for good reason.

They consume an abundance of natural products, whole foods, and healthy fatty acids. One of their greatest sources of these desirable health habits is the olive. Olive leaves are one of the most abundant sources of oleuropein.

Studies involving this molecule found that it shows significant effects against respiratory syntactical virus and para-influenza type 3 virus 5. While olive oil has less oleuropein than olive leaf, it has a considerable amount of healthy fatty acids that repair our gut and keep our immune system strong.

Up the antioxidant effects and give free radicals a scare with a delicious garlic oil infusion! Ginger is a staple in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This tangy root can bring life to any stir-fry or give your water a fizzy flavor.

It also has excellent antiviral capabilities that makes this root essential for a healthy daily diet. One study found that ginger helped improve the cells in both the upper respiratory tract HEp-2 cells and lower respiratory tract A cells 6.

Furthermore, analysts noted that ginger caused cells to secrete Interferon-beta IFN-β. IFN-β is a polypeptide that has antiviral capabilities because it regulates DNA encryption 7.

So, it can help block a viral attack. An unsung hero in antiviral foods is oregano oil. Oregano plants are one of the most flavorful and effective antiviral herbs in the world.

Extracts from this Italian herb are rich in antioxidants and other healing compounds that fight off free radicals. Namely, carvacrol can stop nonenveloped murine norovirus MNV in its tracks 8. MNV is a precursor to noroviruses.

Researchers noted that antiviral effects can happen within an hour of ingesting oregano oil. Oregano oil is highly abrasive on the skin. Make sure to mix it with a thicker carrier oil if you are using it as a chest rub. Excellent choices for carrier oils include coconut oil and olive oil.

Be sure to add in some lemon balm for the scent of citrus fruits and an extra dose of antiviral properties! The sea-based superfood spirulina is one of the most versatile antiviral foods. You can add spirulina powder to a variety of superfood smoothies. If you never thought about doing so, it might be time to reconsider.

One study looked at the effects of spirulina on three predominant types of influenza 9. Considerable evidence suggests that after one hour, the blue algae inhibited virus replication.

Many of the antiviral benefits of spirulina are attributed to its high levels of cyanovirin-N. This protein has shown promise in slowing down the progression of HIV to AIDS This plant-based food is also a great source of Vitamin E.

Vitamin E not only helps fight off free radicals but it helps convert our food to energy. So, by consuming Vitamin E, we can cut down the inflammatory-causing fat tissues that might cause an adverse immune response.

This preventative measure makes our body less susceptible to viral replication. If you give a shiitake about your health, you should give shiitake mushrooms a try. In fact, shittake mushrooms are so popular that many health food stores sell it in organic teas!

Shiitake mushrooms are teeming with beta-glucans. These are sugars that have antiviral capabilities. In fact, hospitals administer beta-glucans via an IV to prevent infection post-surgery One study on the antiviral benefits of shiitake mushrooms found that these foods had a positive impact on the immune system.

Researchers stated that compounds in shiitake mushrooms increased secretory immunoglobulin A sIgA in the body They noted that this action improved gut motility, which would help with many gastro problems.

sIgA is an antibody. It plays a significant role in protecting the cell membrane. As we mentioned, viruses like to use the cells as hosts so they can carry out their agenda.

Eating antiviral foods rich in sIgA can help prevent that attack.


How Antiviral Drugs Work: The Virus Lifecycle Every dietary decision you make can either help or harm your immune system. Each Antiviral virus-fighting properties vieus-fighting consume is enriched Skin protection from environmental factors vitamins, lroperties, fats, and Vrus-fighting that can either boost or hinder your overall health. The difference in these nutrients is what gives some foods different benefits, including antiviral properties. Antiviral foods are enriched with a litany of organic compounds that help fight off pathogens within the body. Viruses like to infiltrate healthy cells and use their membranes as a host. Antiviral virus-fighting properties

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