Category: Children

Anti-cancer properties of essential oils

Anti-cancer properties of essential oils

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Anti-cancer properties of essential oils -

No significant long-term benefits of aromatherapy or massage in pain control, QOL, or anxiety were reported, but sleep scores as measured by the Verran and Snyder-Halpern sleep scale improved significantly in both groups.

A statistically significant reduction in depression scores was also reported as measured by the HADS in the massage-only group. A randomized controlled trial of lavender, tea tree oil, or no-treatment control in adult patients who received outpatient chemotherapy with paclitaxel reported that trait anxiety and sleep quality improved with lavender, and that tea tree oil led to the highest change in sleep quality.

However, changes in anxiety were observed only on the trait anxiety scores, not on the state anxiety scores, which may reflect short term changes associated with an aromatherapy intervention.

In addition, there were no significant differences in sleep scores between the two aromatherapy groups and the controls, which the study was designed to detect.

Radioactive iodine damage to normal salivary glands may be minimized by increased saliva production during the period of treatment.

Inhalation aromatherapy was evaluated for its ability to increase saliva production during this administration period. Salivary gland function was assessed by scintigraphy. Although an increasing trend was observed for the submandibular glands in subjects receiving aromatherapy, no significant differences were noted between the groups.

A randomized, controlled, crossover trial investigated the effects of inhaled ginger essential oil on alleviating chemotherapy -induced nausea and vomiting in Asian women with breast cancer.

The study found that an intervention of tasting or sniffing sliced oranges was more effective at reducing symptom intensity compared with orange essential oil inhalation aromatherapy. In a three-arm randomized trial of patients that compared lavender, eucalyptus , and no essential oil administered via inhalation, procedural pain after needle insertion into an implantable central venous port catheter was significantly decreased in the lavender oil inhalation aromatherapy group compared with the control group.

Inhalation of eucalyptus oil did not reduce procedural pain levels during needle insertion. A four-arm randomized trial compared aromatherapy, music therapy , a combination of the two, and a placebo in breast cancer patients before and after a mastectomy.

The aromatherapy arm utilized a mixture of lavender, bergamot, and geranium essential oils, while the music arm offered a choice of music styles. Measured endpoints included pain intensity and anxiety.

The combination of treatments was superior to either single treatment with all endpoints. Aromatherapy is used or claimed to be useful for a variety of symptoms and conditions.

A book about aromatherapy in children suggests aromatherapy remedies for everything from acne to whooping cough.

A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial compared bergamot inhalation aromatherapy with a pleasant-smelling shampoo that did not contain essential oils in 37 children and adolescents who were undergoing stem cell transplant infusions.

The study found that aromatherapy was not beneficial in reducing nausea, anxiety, or pain. Nausea and pain subsided over the course of the intervention for all children, although nausea remained significantly greater in patients who received aromatherapy.

These findings suggest that the diffusion of bergamot essential oil may not provide suitable anxiolytic and antiemetic effects among children and adolescents undergoing stem cell transplantation.

These results may be explained by the double-blind methodology of the trial, because single-blinded or nonblinded trials generally supported the aromatherapy intervention. Use our advanced clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are now enrolling patients.

The search can be narrowed by location of the trial, type of treatment, name of the drug, and other criteria. General information about clinical trials is also available. Safety testing on essential oils has shown minimal adverse effects.

Several essential oils have been approved for use as food additives and are classified as GRAS generally recognized as safe by the U. Food and Drug Administration ; however, ingestion of large amounts of essential oils is not recommended.

In addition, a few cases of contact dermatitis have been reported, mostly in aromatherapists who have had prolonged skin contact with essential oils in the context of aromatherapy massage. Phototoxicity has occurred when essential oils particularly citrus oils are applied directly to the skin before sun exposure.

One case report also showed airborne contact dermatitis in the context of inhaled aromatherapy without massage. Allergic reactions are sometimes reported, especially after topical administration.

Individual psychological associations with odors may result in adverse responses. Repeated exposure to lavender and tea tree oils by topical administration was shown in one study to be associated with reversible prepubertal gynecomastia.

Therefore, avoiding these two essential oils is recommended in patients with estrogen -dependant tumors. However, this is the first published report of this type of adverse effect when using products containing tea tree or lavender oils.

To assist readers in evaluating the results of human studies of integrative, alternative, and complementary therapies for people with cancer , the strength of the evidence i. To qualify for a level of evidence analysis , a study must:.

Separate levels of evidence scores are assigned to qualifying human studies on the basis of statistical strength of the study design and scientific strength of the treatment outcomes i. The resulting two scores are then combined to produce an overall score, with a score of 1 being the strongest evidence and a score of 4 being the weakest design or sometime similar.

For an explanation of the scores and additional information about levels of evidence analysis for people with cancer, see Levels of Evidence for Human Studies of Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies.

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Added Pediatric Population and Aromatherapy as a new subsection.

This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board , which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH.

More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ® Cancer Information for Health Professionals pages.

This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the use of aromatherapy with essential oils in the treatment of people with cancer.

It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians in the care of their patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board , which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute NCI.

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PDQ® Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board. PDQ Aromatherapy With Essential Oils. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Permission to use images outside the context of PDQ information must be obtained from the owner s and cannot be granted by the National Cancer Institute.

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Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of essential oils also known as volatile oils from plants flowers, herbs, or trees for the improvement of physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Aromatherapy is used by patients with cancer primarily as supportive care for general well-being.

Aromatherapy is commonly used with other complementary treatments e. Essential oils are volatile liquid substances extracted from aromatic plant material by steam distillation or mechanical expression; oils produced with the aid of chemical solvents are not considered true essential oils.

Essential oils are available in the United States for inhalation and topical treatment. Topical treatments are generally used in diluted forms. polystachya, at least in HCT cell model. The E. flavescens and E. patrisii EOs, on the other hand, showed greater toxicity on normal MRC5 cells human fibroblasts [ ].

Overall, these results do not limit the possibility of improving and innovating the cancer therapy by EOs, rather they should be considered as a stimulus to search for a more successful and reliable therapy against CRC. Oxidative stress is one of the causes of cell and DNA damage that can trigger the development of many diseases.

The use of a pro-oxidant strategy has been proposed to damage the modified tissues selectively [ ]. Therefore, the search for bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity is a strategy to prevent this problem [ , , ].

Numerous studies are showing antioxidant properties using in vitro tests such as DPPH or FRAP, but few exist in cell lines of human colon cancer i.

Caco-2, HCT, LoVo, DLD-1 and HT EOs from the bulb of Allium roseum L. It also showed antioxidant activity in FRAP and DPPH assays, and the ability to inhibit the production of superoxide anion in the above-mentioned cell lines [ 99 ]. In another study, the treatment of HCT and HT cells and primary fetal colon cells FHC with cinnamaldehyde and an ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark Cinnamomum cassia L.

Presl , upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2, increased cellular levels of glutathione and protected HCT cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative damage [ ]. The antioxidant activity of EOs could protect DNA and tissues from damage caused by oxidative stress and ROS reactive oxygen species [ , ].

A recent study in HT cells showed that certain chemical compounds in EOs such as nerolidol, thymol, geraniol, methyl isoeugenol, eugenol, linalool and a commercial mixture Agolin showed antioxidant as well as cytotoxic activity against this cell line [ ].

Genoprotection against oxidative DNA damage was also observed for all studied compounds, being thymol at Geraniol at ppm also protected cells against DNA damage by methylation. Another study investigated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and DNA protective effects of carvacrol and thymol in HepG2 and Caco-2 cell lines.

Both compounds did not induce DNA chain breaks in any cell line, and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, they offered significant protection against DNA strand breaks [ ]. The effects of fennel EO, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. When cells were pretreated with this EO, rich in estragole, cell viability was augmented while ROS generation was modulated by increasing CAT and SOD activities; MDA levels were also reduced compared to cells which were treated only with insecticide [ ].

Although these results show that fennel EO has antioxidant activity and reduces DNA damage, it could increase the viability of a cancerous cell line, even if not reported by the authors. leaves has been showed mild antioxidant activity in a non-cancerous cell line from a primary culture of rat hepatocytes, however, it demonstrated a strong pro-oxidative effect on Caco-2 cancer cells due to increased production of ROS [ ].

Furthermore, this EO combined with doxorubicin improved its antiproliferative and pro-oxidant properties in cancer cells. The chemical composition of M. As a side result, it is noteworthy that this EO showed a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines [ ].

Another study investigated the antioxidant capacity of carvacrol, thymol and their mixture in Caco-2 cells by measuring ROS production. It was observed that carvacrol and the mixture at high concentrations induced oxidative stress, while at low concentrations showed protection against lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide [ ].

EOs have shown different properties to redox conditions. On one hand, the antioxidant properties could reduce the damage associated with ROS production preventing the conversion of benign cells into cancer cells, as well as DNA damage, but on the other hand, a pro-oxidant condition could also be a strategy to attack cancerous tissues Table 2.

This antioxidant-prooxidant activity of sesquiterpenes has been already reported [ ]. As described in the previous section, some components of EOs can be considered potential antimutagenic compounds since they are capable of protecting DNA against ROS-induced toxicity.

Thymol, geraniol and fennel EOs have demonstrated this potential antimutagenic effect due to their antioxidant properties [ , ]. The essential oil from Croton lechleri Müll.

stem bark showed a protective efficacy in Ames test against mutagenic heterocyclic amines such as 2-aminomethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline and 2-amino-3,4- dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinolone [ 98 ]. It might be due to the inhibition of the metabolic activation via P and the blocking of mutagen access to DNA.

It also showed antiproliferative properties in the LoVo and HepG2 cell lines. This EO contains Both ROS and cytokines may activate different lymphocytes to encounter inflammation [ , ].

During the inflammatory process, other mediators, such as nitric oxide NO , interleukin 1 beta IL-1β , histamine or PAF may have a role in the harmful mechanism [ 23 , , ]. Chronic exposure to all these mediators may lead to increased cell proliferation, mutagenesis, oncogene activation, and angiogenesis [ , ].

Usually, plant extracts have been proved as anti-inflammatory agents due to the presence of polyphenols, such as phenolic acids; however, EOs and monoterpenes have been scarcely tested as anti-inflammatory compounds in cancer conditions [ ].

Turmeric has been used as a medicinal herb for thousands of years for the treatment of various disorders. Although curcumin is the most studied active constituent of turmeric, accumulating evidence suggests that other components of turmeric have additional anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties [ ].

Some studies have shown that curcumin preparations containing turmerone and turmeric EOs revealed that anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL and IL as well as FOXP3 were upregulated in the colon.

The combined treatment of curcumin and turmerone provides superior protection from dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis than curcumin alone, highlighting the anti-inflammatory potential of turmeric [ ]. Myrcene and α-pinene are monoterpenes found in the aerial parts leaves, twigs and berries of Pistacia lentiscus L.

They have been well characterized for their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, poor information exists on their potential anticancer activity. An increasing number of studies has revealed that EOs from P. lentiscus L. trunk resin namely mastic gum which contains α-pipene, β-pipene, β-myrcine, linalool, trans-caryophyllene and camphene, may exert anticancer activity in several types of human neoplasia, including prostate and colon carcinomas as well as haematological malignancies [ , , ].

Particularly, hexane and ethanolic extracts of mastic gum were shown to induce p and pindependent G1-phase arrest followed by apoptosis in human colon cancer HCT cells in vitro [ , ].

Another research revealed a dose-dependent reduction of tumour cell viability induced by myrcene and α-pinene in Caco-2 cells. Intracellular ROS production slightly increased according to P. lentiscus EOs exposure, but it was one of the lowest ROS levels compared to other cell lines.

Previously, anti-inflammatory properties were reported for limonene, β-pinene and γ-terpinene, which reduced leukocyte migration to the damaged tissue and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity [ , ].

Thymus alternans K. EO has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties and antiproliferative activity in HCT and HCT cells.

Such effect was specifically due to nerolidol, the main volatile component of T. alternans [ 88 ]. This sesquiterpene was also responsible for the cytotoxic activity of Comptonia peregrina L.

Coulter, a native plant from Canada used in traditional medicine against cancer, in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line DLD-1 [ 88 ]. Table 3 summarizes the anti-inflammatory properties of the EOs tested on different colon cancer cell lines.

Generally, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes seem to be the most active compounds. These terpenes have not only demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect, but also concomitant antiproliferative and antibacterial ones.

The synergy between different compounds is a sought-after effect in the fight against cancer. Such effect of the essential polyphenolic compounds of curcumin, the EO of turmeric ETO-Cur , and the tocotrienol-rich fraction TRF of the vitamin E isomers has been evaluated in HT and HCT cells.

Indeed, the combined treatment, especially for ETO-Cur and TRF, showed synergistic potential in the 2 cell models. Similarly, in in vivo studies, HCT cells xenograft in SCID mice were treated by ETO-Cur and TRF, which synergically acted to inhibit tumor volume.

Moreover, even changes in microbial diversity were observed in xenograft mice treated with such EOs combination [ ]. Various studies have reported that TQ could enhance anti-cancer potential when co-administered with several chemotherapeutic agents while reducing their toxic side effects [ ].

Menthol and trans-anethole EOs led to cytotoxic microemulsions decreasing HeLa cells proliferation by MTT assay concluding that the oily component could play a role in the efficacy and safety of the microemulsions for comparison α-tocopherol based-formulations showed opposite effects with increased cell proliferation [ ].

EO from the leaves of M. rubra also demonstrated an antiproliferative effect on Caco2 cells, with strong prooxidative effect. In addition, this EO was able to improve the antiproliferative and prooxidative activity of doxorubicin enhancing intracellular and nuclei accumulation, as previous described [ ].

A limitative aspect of using the EOs in CRC management is represented by variable concentrations of bioactive compounds. Many factors, including ecological and geographical conditions influence to the quality and quantity of EOs.

The chemical composition and biological activities of EOs depend on various factors such as habitat, climatic conditions, seasonality, cultivation and harvesting and conservation practices, the type of soil, the different extraction procedures [ , , , ] as well as a substantial variability based on the part of the plant used for the extraction of EO.

Altitude is an important factor affecting yield, composition, and biology of plant extracts. Satureja thymbra L. EO showed increased cytotoxic activity at an altitude of m if compared to the same EO collected at m above sea level.

This result was obtained using the sulforhodamine B assay on HCT colon cancer cells with an IC 50 of 2. In this case, the EO composition was prevailed by carvacrol Another important therapeutic limitation derives from the fact that it is not known exactly and completely the pharmacokinetic profiles of the essential oils, and due to their hydrophobic nature EOs can lead to poor bioavailability and pharmacodynamics issues.

Clinical challenges derived from the search for a natural therapy that includes EOs has led to attempts to find methods for administering the extracts. To overcome these issues, researchers explored the possibility to load nano-carriers with EOs, individually or combined with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

For example, A Carum carvi L. oil nanoemulsion system was tested on HT cells, whereas it demonstrated a cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction by increased gene expression of caspase Besides, the authors suggested that the use of dietary supplements with nanoemulsions could potentially decrease the risk of cancer and that more research was needed to confirm this hypothesis [ ].

This approach of drug delivery however has been poorly studied in CRC and EOs thus leaving the possibility to go down this route, at least in preclinical models.

In order to improve the anticancer therapeutic potential and reduce the toxicity of bioactives compounds, new nanopharmaceutical forms for target transport such as nanoparticles, liposomes, nanocapsules, niosomes should be developed and researched [ 21 , 22 , , ].

Alternatively, EOs can be combined with other more bioavailable compounds in order to harness their impact on human organism. For example, EOs can be used together with other plant natural derived products to search for an additive or a synergistic effect. Nonetheless, this combination scheme should be carefully evaluated, as sometime novel compounds put inside in a complex organism can lead also to antagonistic effects, an activity that need to be avoided.

Despite remarkable anticancer activity of EOs in CRC and cancer in general, clinical trials that face the challenge of using such preparations in humans are still lacking. It is hoped that this gap will be rapidly filled in and that new works will explore the superb effects of EOs in CRC.

Essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for a very long time, due to the healing properties that have been studied and demonstrated. Numerous experimental pharmacological studies have shown that they can inhibit the development of cancer and deserve to be used in prevention and even as adjuncts to classical chemotherapy.

Therapeutic strategies to fight against CRC relay on surgery, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapeutic agents. EOs, defined as volatile chemical molecules from plants, can be potentially inserted in the last category of curative tools for the treatment of cancer.

Though numerous advancements have been reported in surgery and chemotherapy in the last decades leading to progression of patient time survival and even in the increase of clinical conditions of affected patients, the death rate of CRC is still worrying healthcare system worldwide.

This updated review showed scientific evidence on the potential anticancer effect of EOs in CRC. EOs can exhibit cytotoxic effects on living cells depending on type and concentration. In eukaryotic cells, EOs can act as prooxidants affecting inner cell membranes and organelles such as mitochondria.

In some cases, changes in intracellular redox potential and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by EO can be associated with their capacity to exert antigenotoxic effects. EOs can interfere with several molecular targets in a pleiotropic fashion, but undeniably the cytotoxic activity of EOs is based on their individual components.

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Rec Nat Prod. Sharma M, Agrawal SK, Sharma PR, Chadha BS, Khosla MK, Saxena AK. Current Drug Delivery. View More. Related Books Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - Anti-Cancer Agents.

Advanced Pharmacy. Plant-derived Hepatoprotective Drugs. Cancer Genes. The Role of Chromenes in Drug Discovery and Development. New Avenues in Drug Discovery and Bioactive Natural Products.

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This cancer information summary provides an overview olis the use of aromatherapy with essential oils primarily to improve the quality of life of cancer patients. This Immune system maintenance includes fssential brief history of aromatherapy, a review of laboratory studies properteis clinical trialsAnti-cancer properties of essential oils possible Anti-cancer properties of essential oils effects off with aromatherapy use. Many of the medical and scientific terms used in the summary are hypertext linked at first use in each section to the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Termswhich is oriented toward nonexperts. When a linked term is clicked, a definition will appear in a separate window. Reference citations in some PDQ cancer information summaries may include links to external websites that are operated by individuals or organizations for the purpose of marketing or advocating the use of specific treatments or products. These reference citations are included for informational purposes only. An increased interest by consumers toward pharmacologically active Anti-cancer properties of essential oils Anti-vancer products as Anti-cancer properties of essential oils to synthetic Anti-dancer has increased Anti-canver attention of global scientists. Among the various plant-derived natural products, essential oils have Anti-cander popularity because of its use Performance enhancement analysis food, cosmetics, and propsrties industries. Constituting an array of many lipophilic and highly volatile components, derived from a wide range of different chemical classes, essential oils are characterized by a wide range of biological activities, such as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, sedative, analgesic, and anesthetic. A growing interest has recently focused on the potential of essential oils as an anticancer treatment to overcome the development of multidrug resistance and important side effects associated with the currently used antitumor drugs. The anticancer potential of essential oils has been widely explored till date.

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