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Fermented dairy products

Fermented dairy products

Stabilizers 0. Lactobacillus acidophilus [1] [4]. The Water weight reduction challenges is metered diry the stream of milk as it Fermented dairy products pumped Fermentee an intermediate Fermented dairy products tank to prooducts filling machine. This heat-treatment will minimize Fermented dairy products, giving the yoghurt a bacteriological shelf life in cold store of 1 — 2 months if packed under high hygienic conditions. These recipes for yogurt, kefir, and other fermented dairy foods are easy to make, and you'll also have plenty of ideas about how to use them in novel ways in the kitchen. In this system one main filter and a fan are serving four tanks.

Fermented dairy products -

If you eat yogurt, kefir, sourdough bread, or kombucha, you are already including fermented foods in your diet! Fermentation is the breakdown of carbohydrates, like starch and sugar, by bacteria and yeast.

The process was first used for preserving foods but became less popular as refrigeration and pasteurization came about. Today, we look to fermentation for its ability to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria, known as probiotics. There are many benefits to consuming fermented foods.

Fermentation can also change the taste and texture of the food. For instance, yogurt and kefir are thicker and tangier than milk due to fermentation. Fermented foods are also known as functional foods, meaning they have potential benefits beyond basic nutrition.

Research has shown that fermented foods may reduce heart disease risk and aid digestion, immunity, and weight loss. There is a body of research that links fermented dairy foods, like yogurt and cheese, along with non fermented dairy products to reduced risk for Type 2 diabetes, which is estimated to affect million people worldwide by This year, in particular, as well as this time of year, with cold and flu season upon us, we are looking for ways to better support out immune system.

The healthy bacteria found in fermented foods may be a way to do just that. A perfect example of functional foods in action is fermented dairy foods. In addition to the immune enhancing vitamin D provided by dairy foods, studies show an association between yogurt consumption and an improved gut immune response.

Yogurt aids in the digestion of lactose, making it a good choice for those with lactose intolerance. Fermented dairy contains compounds that are being investigated for anti inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti hypertensive properties which are important for preventing certain chronic diseases.

Some studies show that the breakdown of dairy proteins through fermentation may create substances that improve blood pressure control.

Dairy remains an important component of the DASH eating pattern, which recommends up to three servings of low fat dairy per day to help improve blood pressure control. While more studies are needed to fully realize the impact of fermented foods on our health, a daily does for digestion can do a body good.

There are plenty of ways to incorporate fermented dairy foods into your daily routine! Research shows that most Americans eat a breakfast low in protein, while dinner tends to be protein heavy.

Instead, aim for protein at every meal. Milk at meals is a nutritious choice, providing 13 essential nutrients and 8 grams of high quality protein, and adding fermented dairy takes it up another notch.

Images and Texts are Clickable. Banana Bread Overnight Oats. Fermented Warm Grain Bowl. Sheet Pan Mediterranean Shrimp. Kefir Pumpkin Pie Smoothie.

Roasted Garlic and White Bean Dip. Hawaiian Harvest Smoothie. Categories : Milk Fermented dairy products Sour foods. Hidden categories: CS1 Swedish-language sources sv All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from December Articles with permanently dead external links Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Commons category link is on Wikidata Articles with NKC identifiers.

Toggle limited content width. acidophilus milk. leben , kishk , rayeb. kiselo mlyako , katak , ayryan and kefir. kefír or acidofilní mléko. kærnemælk , tykmælk , and ymer. soured milk and kefir. Sauermilch or Dickmilch soured milk or thickened milk , Quark. xinogalo or xinogala ξινόγαλα , ariani αριάνι , kefiri κεφίρι.

aludttej , joghurt , kefir , tejföl. skyr and súrmjólk. dahi , lassi , chaas or Moru Indian ButterMilk , mattha , mishti doi and shrikhand. doogh , kashk , ghara.

Japan more info ja. Calpis , Yakult. rūgušpiens , kefīrs , paniņas , lakto. rūgpienis , kefyras. kiselo mleko. airag , byaslag , tarag , khuruud. karnemelk buttermilk , drinkyoghurt usually fruit-flavoured fermented dairy beverages. surmjølk or kulturmelk , and tjukkmjølk [3].

dahi and lassi. soured milk including "acidofilne" milk , kefir , buttermilk , twaróg. lapte bătut , lapte acru , kefir and sana. Russia , Ukraine , Belarus. kefir , prostokvasha , ryazhenka , varenets , tvorog , acidophiline. kiselo mleko and yogurt.

kefír or acidofilné mlieko. kislo mleko. filmjölk , långfil and A-fil fil is the short form of filmjölk.

ayran , qatiq , kefir , yoğurt , kımız. Bosnia and Herzegovina. kiselo mlijeko and kefir. Kule Naoto, Maziwa Lala, Mursik , Amabere amaruranu Mala. sýrður rjómi. skābais krējums. kwaśna śmietana. a variety of bacteria or mold. naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria in cream. Mesophilic fermented cream, originally from France; higher-fat variant of sour cream.

Lactococcus lactis subsp. Mesophilic fermented pasteurized cream with an acidity of at least 0.

Disclosure: This post xairy contain Fermdnted links. I receive a small pdoducts Fermented dairy products no Eating schedule tips to you when you make a purchase using my link. Milk has been serving mammals as nectar for thousands of years. This natural resource is highly appreciated by the people. Cultures all around the world have gone even further when it comes to cultivating this nutrient boosted liquid.

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Dairy starter cultures, fermented dairy products (part-1)

Fermented dairy products -

Alternatively, if set yoghurt is to be produced, and the pre-treatment capacity does not match the packing capacity, the milk is cooled to a temperature below 10 °C preferably 5 °C. When the yoghurt milk has been pre-treated and cooled to inoculation temperature, the procedure for further treatment depends on whether set, stirred, drink, frozen or concentrated yoghurt is to be produced.

The block diagrams in Figures The quality of the yoghurt in terms of texture and flavour depends on the design of the plant, the treatment of the milk and the treatment of the product. Modern plants are designed to satisfy demands for high production, continuous treatment and high quality.

The level of automation varies, and complete CIP systems are normally integrated into the plants. The level of automation is usually high in large-scale production.

Excessive mechanical treatment of the product must be avoided, as it may cause product defects such as thin consistency and whey separation. The total amount of treatment to which the product is subjected must be taken into consideration when the plant is designed.

The choice of suitable equipment and the matching and optimization of the plant are consequently a question of achieving a suitable balance between cost and quality. In modern plants, stirred and set types of yoghurt are often produced concurrently. In the production of set yoghurt, the product flow is continuously controlled from the point where the milk is accepted in the pre-treatment section to the packaging of the product.

In the production of stirred yoghurt, the pre-treatment of the milk is continuous up to the point at which it is pumped into the incubation tanks, to which the culture is added.

The continuity is interrupted by the time-consuming incubation, which must be free from any physical disturbance. A typical plant for continuous production of a relatively large volume of stirred yoghurt is shown in Figure The pre-treated milk, cooled to incubation temperature, is pumped to the incubation tanks 7 in succession.

Simultaneously, freeze dried or deep frozen culture is dosed into the milk stream. After a tank has been filled, agitation commences and continues for a short time to assure uniform distribution of the starter culture. The incubation tanks are insulated, to ensure that the temperature remains constant during the incubation period.

The tanks can be fitted with pH meters to check the development of acidity. In typical production of stirred yoghurt the incubation period is hours at 42 — 43 °C, when highly concentrated culture about 0.

The relative short incubation time indicates that the multiplication generation period is fast. For typical yoghurt bacteria, the generation period is some 20 — 30 minutes.

To attain optimum quality conditions, cooling to 15 — 22 °C from 42 — 43 °C should be accomplished within 30 minutes after the ideal pH-value has been reached, to stop further development of bacteria.

Many parameters in the line are responsible for the final quality. In the final stage of incubation, when the required pH normally about 4. This temporarily stops any further increase in acidity. At the same time, the coagulum must be subjected to gentle mechanical treatment, so that the final product will have the correct consistency.

In some cases a strainer or a structurizing valve is built into the line, prior to the cooler, in order to optimize the yoghurt structure and appearance. Cooling takes place in a plate heat exchanger 8 , which is designed to give a gentle mechanical treatment of the product.

The capacities of pump and cooler are often dimensioned to empty a tank in about 30 minutes in order to maintain a uniform product quality. However, some cultures are specially adapted to stop when reaching pH e. These cultures are fermenting very slow in this pH area and thus a longer cooling time to ºC can be accepted.

The cooled yoghurt is pumped to buffer tanks 9 before being routed to the filling machine s After cooling to 15 — 22 °C, the yoghurt is ready for packing. Fruit and various flavourings can be added 10 to the yoghurt when it is transferred from the buffer tanks to the filling machines.

This is done continuously with a variable-speed metering pump, which feeds the ingredients into the yoghurt in the fruit-blending unit shown in Figure The blending unit is static and hygienically designed to guarantee that the fruit is thoroughly mixed into the yoghurt.

The fruit metering pump and the yoghurt feed pump operate synchronously. The fruit should be as homogeneous as possible. A thickener in the form of pectin can be added. The proportion of pectin is hardly ever higher than 0.

Proper heat treatment is an extremely important stage in the pre-treatment of fruit additives. Scraped-surface heat exchangers, tubular heat exchangers or tanks with scraper units, can be used for adequate pasteurization of whole berries or fruit with solid particles.

The temperature programme should be such that all vegetative microorganisms are inactivated without impairing the taste and texture of the fruit. Continuous production, with rapid heating and cooling, is therefore important with regard to product quality and economic aspects.

Following the heat treatment, it is important that the fruit is packed in sterilized containers under aseptic conditions. Deterioration of cultured milk products is too often caused by reinfection from inadequately treated fruit.

Various types of filling machines are used to pack yoghurt. The sizes of the packages vary from one market to another. In general, the total packing capacity should match the capacity of the pasteurization plant, so as to obtain optimal running conditions for the plant as a whole.

As mentioned, the plant design is one important factor affecting the quality of the yoghurt and, of course, all other cultured products. Curve A represents the ideal situation, when all operations that influence the structure and viscosity are optimized.

It is inevitable that the product will become less viscous while being treated, since yoghurt belongs to the class of products with thixotropic flow behaviour. However, if all parameters and equipment are fully optimized, the viscosity will be almost fully regenerated, and the likelihood of syneresis occurring will be minimized.

Curve B shows the result when the product has been maltreated on its way from the incubation tank up to packaging and cold storage. If the yoghurt coagulum has been treated too hard, the viscosity will be too low, resulting in a liquid product with high risk for whey separation.

In order to reduce installation costs, it is possible to use the same plant for production of both stirred and set yoghurt.

The pre-treatment of the milk intended for either product is identical up to cooling down to incubation temperature. The starter is metered into the stream of milk as it is pumped from an intermediate storage tank to the filling machine. Set yoghurt is produced by adding culture to pasteurized and cooled milk.

Prior to the filling machine the mix of milk and culture is heated to exact fermentation temperature. Aroma may be added in line.

The packed mixture is transported to an incubation room where the coagulation is made. When ready, the set-type yoghurt is then cooled in a cooling tunnel.

The most frequently used system for production of set yoghurt is illustrated in Figure This system offers flexibility in production planning, because it is not necessary to match pre-treatment capacity to packing capacity.

The milk, pre-treated in the same way as for stirred yoghurt, is cooled to a temperature of less than 10 °C, preferably to 5 °C, and pumped into one, two or more tanks 1.

Following culture inoculation and thorough stirring, the milk is ready to be heated in-line 2 to exact incubation temperature, before being packed 4 in containers.

Flavouring can be continuously metered into the milk stream prior to the filling machine. If fruit or additives with particles are added these have to be dosed into the packages or cups first before they are filled with inoculated milk. It is, however, important to remember that additives with low pH have a negative influence on fermentation.

Following packaging the packages, after crating and palletizing, are trucked into either of two systems for incubation and subsequent cooling, viz.

The crates are normally stacked on pallets, which are then trucked into the incubation room. This ensures uniform quality, provided that the temperature is accurately controlled. When the empirically determined optimum pH typically 4. The normal target temperature is 18 — 20 °C; it is important to stop further growth quickly, which means that a temperature of about 35 °C should be reached within 30 minutes, and 18 — 20 °C after another 30 — 40 minutes.

Final cooling, normally down to 5 °C, takes place in the cold store, where the products are held to await distribution. Cooling efficiency depends on the size of the individual package, the design and material of the packages, the depth of the crate stack, the spacing between individual packages in each crate, and the design of the crates.

A smaller, free cross-section will require higher airflows, which also means higher energy consumption. The pallets crates are stationary during incubation. In a typical incubation period of 3 — 3. The cooling capacity should be adequate to achieve the above-mentioned temperature programme.

As a guide, the total cooling time is about 65 — 70 minutes for small packages 0. A low-viscosity drinkable yoghurt, normally with a low fat content, is popular in many countries.

The composition can be the same as for stirred yoghurt but can also be reduced in DM by e. dilution with water. The yoghurt intended for production of drinking yoghurt is produced in the ordinary way with fermentation in tanks.

In order to get a stable drinking yoghurt without sedimentation, a stabilizer commonly pectin but also modified starch or CMC are used should be added to the product before cooling. The yoghurt with added pectin is homogenized prior to cooling to get optimal stabilizing effect.

Shelf life of a fermented milk product is dependent on a number of visible and organoleptical factors like whey separation, changes in viscosity, structure, colour, acidity and aroma. It is of course also dependent on bacteriological defects. Because of the tendency towards larger and more centralized production units, the markets are becoming geographically larger and transport distances longer.

In some cases, the sales district may be so large that only one delivery per week is economically justifiable. This, in turn, necessitates methods which extend the shelf life of the product beyond normal.

In some countries, it is difficult to maintain the integrity of the cooling chain. Therefore, there is a demand for a sterilized yoghurt that can be stored at room temperature.

It should be noted that if the microorganisms in the yoghurt are killed by heating, the product is then, according to the definition in many countries, not allowed to be called yoghurt.

They can however be called "yoghurt based". In aseptic production, measures are taken to prevent the yoghurt from being infected by yeast and moulds. These microorganisms would destroy the product, as they can survive and multiply in an acid environment and can cause off-flavours and whey separation.

The prime measure is thorough cleaning and sterilization of all surfaces in contact with the product. The special feature of aseptic production is, however, that it takes place under aseptic conditions; using aseptic tanks which are permanently pressurized with sterile air, remote-controlled aseptic valves, aseptic metering devices for fruit and aseptic filling machines.

Infection by airborne microorganisms can then be prevented. This extends the shelf life of the product significantly. Hygienic conditions must be maintained in all food industries, not only in the equipment coming in direct contact with the product, but also in the premises where production takes place.

A system based on filtration of the air through absolute filters, as shown in Figure to a high standard of purity. In this system one main filter and a fan are serving four tanks. An alternative is that each tank is equipped with its own filter.

An absolute filter is capable of trapping particles larger than 0. Each system or tank to be supplied with air is equipped with an extra pipe for the air and a safety system to prevent the tank from imploding as a result of the vacuum created by the drop in temperature after cleaning.

Air velocity is approx. The filter is normally placed in the process room, with the result that all contaminant particles in the ambient air will eventually be filtered out, thereby creating Clean Room conditions.

Similar systems are used in bacteriological laboratories, hospital operating theatres and pharmaceutical factories. However, the most critical areas for re-infection are at fruit addition and packaging. It is therefore of high importance that contamination can be excluded during these operations and that a high hygienic filling machine is used.

Production and packing under aseptic or high hygiene conditions are important prerequisites to improve shelf life and production safety of a yoghurt for cold distribution.

Heat treatment of yoghurt is another method to prolong its shelf life. Dependent on temperature used the product can be stored chilled or ambient. The heat treatment temperature is dependent on a number of factors as: milk quality, milk pre-treatment, pH of yoghurt, fruit quality, particle size, stabilizer type and microbiological requirements of the final product.

All types of yoghurt stirred, set, drinking and concentrated can be prolonged in shelf life by heating. Heat treatment of yoghurt prolongs its shelf life by:.

In production of stirred yoghurt, the coagulum from the incubation tanks can be heat-treated at 60 — 70 °C for a few seconds. This heat-treatment will minimize post-acidification, giving the yoghurt a bacteriological shelf life in cold store of 1 — 2 months if packed under high hygienic conditions.

If the aim is to produce a yoghurt for ambient storage the heating temperature should be in the range of 75 — °C for some seconds and dependent on factors as milk quality, milk treatment, pH of yoghurt etc.

The product should, in all cases, be packed in an aseptic filling machine to prevent reinfection, as in Figure Viscosity reduction and whey separation are associated with heating of fermented milk.

These problems can however be avoided by using stabilizers. The stabilizers will re-build the rheological properties of the product. Set yoghurt can be heat-treated at e. The time is of course dependent on the size and shape of the package.

Also for set type a stabilizer should be used. Drinking yoghurt may have the same composition as ordinary milk. It is however popular in many countries to dilute the product with water. Pectin is a common stabilizer used to avoid sedimentation and whey separation as well as to improve the viscosity and the mouth feel of the product after heating.

Other stabilizers which can be used are modified starch e. If pectin is used it is preferably added as a water solution to the yoghurt prior to the final heat treatment.

In order to get the optimal stabilizing effect of the pectin, mechanical treatment e. homogenization, should take place. In some countries the use of stabilizers is forbidden by law or is only permitted to a limited extent. Other additives to the drinking yoghurt are sugar and fruit concentrate or aroma.

Heating to a temperature of about 75 °C and above kills all the virulent microorganisms in the yoghurt. A process line for heat treatment of yoghurt can also be used for production of pudding and desserts.

Frozen yoghurt can be manufactured in two ways. Either, the yoghurt is mixed with an ice cream mix or an ice cream mix is fermented, before further processing.

In the latter alternative a conventional line for production of stirred type yoghurt can be used. The incubation time of the yoghurt mix is appreciably longer than for normal yoghurt production.

This is because the yoghurt mix contains much more carbohydrates than normal yoghurt. For both alternatives further processing will be identical with the conventional production of ice cream.

See Chapter 19 Ice cream. Frozen yoghurt can be divided into soft-served and hard-frozen types. The mix intended for soft-served yoghurt differs somewhat from that of the hard-frozen type.

Typical recipes are:. Concentrated yoghurt is produced in many countries. It Is also known under names as Strained yoghurt, Greek yoghurt, Labneh, Skyr, etc.

In concentrated yoghurt the DM of the product is increased after fermentation. Whey is drained off from the coagulum. There are two main production methods used today:. In both cases standardized milk is heat treated ºC for 5 minutes before it may be homogenized if required and then cooled to fermentation temperature before it is fed to the incubation tanks.

After ready fermentation the yoghurt is evenly agitated before it is thermized ºC for minutes and cooled to separation temperature. The product is fed to either a nozzle separator or to an ultrafiltration unit plant. In the latter methods there are mainly three different types of membrane systems which can be used.

Which one to use is dependent on several factors such as product dry matter, running time needed, investment costs, etc. Except for these two production methods It is also possible to standardize the milk to final composition before fermentation. Care has to be taken when using this method, as if protein content is increased too much there is a risk of getting off flavours and sandiness in the finished product.

No matter which method is used to produce the concentrated yoghurt, the final product is often very viscous. Compared to a stirred yoghurt line extra care has to be taken in the design and dimensioning of the buffer tanks and surrounding equipment to make sure that the thick product can be emptied from the tanks.

Kefir is one of the oldest cultured milk products. It originates from the Caucasus region and is today produced in many countries. The raw material is milk from goats, sheep or cows. Kefir should be viscous and homogeneous, and have a shiny surface.

The taste should be fresh and acid, with a slight flavour of yeast. The pH of the product is usually 4. A special culture, known as Kefir grain, is used for the production of Kefir.

The grains consist of proteins, polysaccharides and a mixture of several types of microorganisms, such as yeasts and aroma and lactic-acid forming bacteria. The Kefir grains are yellowish in colour and about the size of a cauliflower florette, i.

about 15 to 20 mm in diameter. The shape of the grains is irregular, as seen in Figure They are insoluble in water and in most solvents. When steeped in milk, the grains swell and become white. During the fermentation process, the lactic-acid bacteria produce lactic acid, whereas the lactose-fermenting yeast cells produce alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Some breakdown of protein also takes place in the yeast metabolism, from which Kefir derives its special yeast aroma. The contents of lactic acid, alcohol and carbon dioxide are controlled by the incubation temperature during production.

A The yoghurt bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus rod shaped and Streptococcus thermophilus spherical live together. B Yeast and lactic acid bacteria at the surface of a kefir grain. C The centre of a kefir grain.

Y east and bacteria are united by a network consisting mainly of proteins and polysaccharides. Depending on local conditions and requirements, the equipment and pro-cess variables may differ significantly from one manufacturer to another.

Kefir type products can also be produced in the same way as stirred type yoghurt by using special concentrated freeze dried starter culture. As with other cultured milk products, the quality of the raw material is of major importance.

It must not contain any antibiotics or other bactericidal agents. The raw material for kefir manufacture can be milk from goats, sheep or cows. Kefir culture is normally produced from milk of various fat contents, but skim milk and reconstituted skim milk, too, have lately been utilized for better control of the microbial composition of the kefir grains.

As in propagation of starter cultures for other cultured milk products, the milk substrate must be thoroughly heat-treated to inactivate bacteriophages.

Production takes place in two stages. The basic reason for this is that kefir grains are bulky and awkward to handle, whereas relatively small volumes of mother culture are easier to control.

In the first stage, the pre-treated substrate is inoculated with active kefir grains. The incubation time is about 20 hours; as the grains tend to sink to the bottom, intermittent stirring for about 10 — 15 minutes every 2 — 5 hours is recommended. When the desired pH value say 4.

The strainer has holes with a diameter of 3 — 4 mm. The grains are washed in the strainer with boiled and cooled water sometimes skim milk.

They can then be reused to incubate a new batch of mother culture. In the second stage, the filtrate can be cooled to about 10 °C if it has to be stored for a few hours before being used. Alternatively, if large quantities of kefir are going to be produced, the filtrate can be immediately inoculated into the pre-treated milk intended as the substrate for the bulk starter.

After incubation at 23 °C for about 20 hours, the bulk starter is ready for inoculation into the kefir milk. The process stages are much the same as for most fermented milk products. The following combination is typical for traditional production of kefir:. The fat content of kefir is reported to vary between 0.

The raw milk is often used with its original fat content. However, fat contents of 2. Following fat standardization, if any, the milk is homogenized at about 65 — 70 °C and The heat treatment programme is the same as for yoghurt and most cultured milks: 90 — 95 °C for five minutes.

The acidulation stage lasts until a pH value of 4. This takes about 12 hours. The coagulum is then stirred and pre-cooled while still in the tank. At a temperature of 14 — 16 °C, cooling is stopped and agitation discontinued. The typical slightly yeasty flavour starts to develop during the following 12 — 14 hours.

Final cooling commences when the acidity has reached — °Th pH about 4. The product is cooled rapidly to 5 — 8 °C in a heat exchanger. This stops any further reduction in pH. It is of vital importance that the product is treated gently when cooled and during subsequent packing.

Mechanical agitation in pumps, pipes and filling machines must therefore be minimized. Air entrainment must also be avoided, as air increases the risk of syneresis in the product. As previously mentioned, the traditional method of preparing bulk starter for kefir manufacture is laborious.

This, in combination with the complexity of the microflora, sometimes leads to unacceptable variations in product quality. To overcome these problems, freeze dried concentrated kefir culture that is handled in the same way as similar forms of other cultures, have been developed at culture laboratories.

After thorough examination of kefir grains obtained from various sources, strains of bacteria and yeasts were isolated and tested for various growth characteristics, lactic acid production, aroma formation, etc.

The composition of the freeze dried culture was then chosen to obtain a balance of microorganisms in the bulk starter and product comparable to that of traditional kefir manufactured with grains in a mother culture.

Concentrated freeze dried kefir cultures for direct use in the milk intended for the end product are now commercially available. The block chart in Figure Compared to traditional bulk starter production, the technique based on freeze dried culture reduces the number of process stages, and with it the risk of reinfecting the culture.

It should however be noted that kefir produced by this type of freeze dried culture is not allowed to be called "kefir" in some countries. It is instead called something like "kefir type". Cultured cream has been used for years in some countries.

It forms the basis of many dishes in the same manner as yoghurt. The starter culture contains Lc. lactis subsp. Food preservation has been a key concern since the earliest days of humanity. Among the numerous empirical processes that have been developed and passed down, fermentation is one of the oldest preservation techniques and still widely used in various food matrices.

The fermentation of milk made its consumption possible very early in human history, before 5, BC when the ability to digest lactose by adults developed.

Milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria present in the raw milk and within the milk vessels is also the oldest and most gentle method of extending the shelf life of milk.

Fermentation produces beneficial effects in foods that undergo chemical changes caused by microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts. Fermentation of dairy is a way of preserving the nutrients found in milk and helping to guard against food waste. Fermented food products have a longer shelf life and are less prone to spoilage than nonfermented food products of the same matrix.

Advances in the understanding of food microbiology and the ability to screen for microbial food cultures has resulted in the increased ability to stabilize foods by microbial food cultures with bioprotective effects.

For yogurt, milk is fermented at 42 to 45°C by the added lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. They form a symbiotic community, supporting each other in their growth. From lactose, lactic acid and aromatic substances are formed. The acidification during fermentation causes the milk to thicken to a gel.

Yogurt normally contains at least 10 million per gram viable bacteria of the two species present. Fermentation reduces lactose by one fourth to one third. Together with the lactose hydrolysing enzyme lactase of the viable bacteria, most lactose-intolerant people can easily digest yogurt.

More information: IDF Factsheet on Bio-protection. The breadth of issues IDF covers in its work is extensive. Find out more about what we do. To make cheese, milk is fermented and concentrated by removal of water through the coagulation of th Dehydration is an important operation used by many dairy processors to extend the shelf life of milk The dairy sector processes raw milk into an array of products and by-products, which have a range of IDF provides a permanent source of authoritative scientific and other information on a whole range of topics relevant to the dairy sector.

This Bulletin summarizes the scientific evidence on the nutritional and health properties of lactose as natura This paper provides relevant guidance on how to apply this material for method performance verification of bot This document gives guidelines for the establishment of a conversion relationship between the results of an al On 11 February, the International Day of Women and Girls in Science, International Dairy Federation recognises the extraordinary achievements of Update of ISO IDF A guide to converting the units of routine bacteria analyzers to anchor method units or vice versa is now available All rights reserved.

IDF in your country. BECOME A MEMBER. MEMBERS AREA. VIEW YOUR BASKET. Search Search. Share this page. Fermented dairy products. Numerous fermented dairy products exist.

These include: Yogurt: a semi-solid fermented milk product developed as a means of preserving the nutrients in milk. Kefir: A cultured, fermented milk drink, similar to yogurt — but thinner in consistency.

Laban: A fermented milk obtained from lactic acid fermentation of heat-treated milk, which results in acidification and coagulation.

Lassi: A fermented milk drink blended with water and various fruits. Skyr: A cultured dairy product with the consistency of Greek yogurt, but a milder flavor.

Skyr can be classified as a fresh sour milk cheese similar to curd cheese but is consumed like a yogurt. Långfil: Whole milk that is left to ferment at low temperatures with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to produce a fermented milk drink.

The science behind yogurt. Technology behind cheese making To make cheese, milk is fermented and concentrated by removal of water through the coagulation of th Read More.

Dehydration of dairy products Dehydration is an important operation used by many dairy processors to extend the shelf life of milk The milk tree — technology and use The dairy sector processes raw milk into an array of products and by-products, which have a range of Dairy focused Membrane Processing Physically separating and selectively concentrating milk components.

Fermented dairy products milk products or Feemented dairy productsalso daify as cultured dairy foodsdaiy dairy productsor cultured Metabolic balance supplements products prlducts, are dairy foods that Improve mental energy and focus been made by fermenting milk with lactic acid Daairy such as LactobacillusLactococcusand Leuconostoc. The fermentation process increases the shelf life of the product while enhancing its taste and improving the digestibility of its milk. There is evidence that fermented milk products have been produced since around 10, BC. Many different types of cultured milk products can be found around the world including milk, cheese, yogurt, other cultured dairy foods, ice cream and more. lactis [8]. Contents move to sidebar hide.

Author: Mikanos

3 thoughts on “Fermented dairy products

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  2. Sie haben ins Schwarze getroffen. Darin ist etwas auch mich ich denke, dass es die gute Idee ist.

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