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Self-care planning in diabetes management

Self-care planning in diabetes management

In: Inn S, Auchus Hair growth pills, Goldfine AB, Koenig RJ, Rosen Diabetesseds. Provide written instructions with handouts for patients to take home, facilitating diabetes management in the home setting. Monitor serum creatinine and BUN levels.

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Self-care planning in diabetes management -

These individuals can offer emotional support, model healthy behaviors, participate in exercise activities, help monitor blood sugar glucose levels, administer insulin or other medications, and open communication around effective self-management practices.

Enhanced social support from family and friends can help build self-efficacy for diabetes self-management. Self-efficacy, related to diabetes self-management, is an individual's belief in their ability to successfully manage their own health needs. Self-efficacy is important for effective diabetes self-management.

It is important that patients understand the benefit of diabetes self-management activities. Programs can encourage healthcare providers to speak openly with patients about self-management and refer patients to self-management programs.

Patients with diabetes should be encouraged to ask questions and be reminded that these activities can help them to achieve successful disease management. Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support in Rural America Website An overview of the benefits of diabetes self-management programs.

Describes different types of diabetes self-management education and support programs available to communities. Organization s : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC. Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support Website Provides links to resources and tools to help communities develop, promote, implement and sustain diabetes self-management education and support DSMES programs.

Includes a DSMES toolkit, technical assistance guide, policies, reports, and several case studies. Diabetes Self-Management Program DSMP Website Describes the Stanford self-management model, an evidence-based program delivered by certified trainers, designed to improve diabetes self-management practices.

The trainers are non-health professionals who may have diabetes themselves and have completed the master training program. Includes educational resources that supplement the program curriculum. Organization s : Self-Management Resource Center. My Diabetes Self-Management Goal Document A worksheet helpful to individuals when managing their diabetes and setting personal health goals.

Menu Search. Evidence-based Toolkits FORHP Funded Programs Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Testing New Approaches Care Management Reimbursement. In this Toolkit Modules 1: Introduction Diabetes Overview Rural Concerns Education and Care 2: Program Models Clinical Partnerships Model Self-Management Model Telehealth Model Community Health Worker Model School Model Faith-Based Model 3: Program Clearinghouse Mariposa Community Health Center Meadows Regional Medical Center Tri-County Health Network St.

Mary's Hospitals and Clinics St. Rural Health Tools for Success Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Diabetes Prevention and Management Toolkit 2: Program Models View more Self-Management Model Diabetes self-management refers to the activities and behaviors an individual undertakes to control and treat their condition.

If you already have a referral, find a diabetes care and education specialist. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to search. Español Other Languages. Your Diabetes Care Schedule.

Español Spanish. Minus Related Pages. Every Day. Blood sugar checks Check up to several times a day as directed by your doctor. Keep a record of your numbers and share with your health care team during your next visit.

Let your doctor know immediately if you have any cuts, redness, swelling, sores, blisters, corns, calluses, or other change to the skin or nails. Diabetes medicines Take the amount prescribed by your doctor, even when you feel good. Physical activity Get at least minutes a week of moderate activity, such as brisk walking or riding a bike.

Healthy eating Eat healthy foods that give you the nutrition you need and help your blood sugar stay in your target range. Your blood pressure and weight will be checked, and your self-care plan and medicines will be reviewed. Dental exam Get your teeth and gums cleaned at least once a year more often if your doctor recommends , and let your dentist know that you have diabetes.

Flu shot Kidney tests Cholesterol test Dilated eye exam You may need this exam more often if you have diabetes-related eye problems. Hearing check Complete foot check You may need this foot check more often if you have ever had diabetes-related foot problems.

Uncontrolled Insulin resistance and exercise can lead bioelectrical impedance macro- and microvascular complications. Adolescents with T2DM Self-care planning in diabetes management similar complications as managemet adults, Hair growth pills cardiovascular disease, stroke, myocardial diqbetes, Appetite suppression support insufficiency, and chronic renal diabetss. Although regular medical djabetes is diabrtes to avoid long-term complications, patients with diabetes mellitus need to perform holistic self-care activities such as opting for a healthy diet, physical activity, self-monitoring, and proper medication. To the best of our knowledge, only a limited number of studies have focused on self-care activities and self-management, including self-care practices, supportive networks, and self-care education programs in adolescent with T2DM. Some of the studies focused on the appreciation of self-care in adolescents with T2DM.

Self-care planning in diabetes management -

Evidence-based Toolkits FORHP Funded Programs Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Testing New Approaches Care Management Reimbursement.

In this Toolkit Modules 1: Introduction Diabetes Overview Rural Concerns Education and Care 2: Program Models Clinical Partnerships Model Self-Management Model Telehealth Model Community Health Worker Model School Model Faith-Based Model 3: Program Clearinghouse Mariposa Community Health Center Meadows Regional Medical Center Tri-County Health Network St.

Mary's Hospitals and Clinics St. Rural Health Tools for Success Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Diabetes Prevention and Management Toolkit 2: Program Models View more Self-Management Model Diabetes self-management refers to the activities and behaviors an individual undertakes to control and treat their condition.

Diabetes self-management typically occurs in the home and includes: Testing blood sugar glucose Consuming balanced meals and appropriate portion sizes Engaging in regular exercise Drinking water and avoiding dehydration Taking medications as prescribed Adjusting medications as needed Conducting self-foot checks Monitoring other signs or symptoms caused by diabetes People with diabetes can learn self-management skills through diabetes self-management education and support DSMES programs.

Examples of Rural Diabetes Self-Management Programs The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program CDSMP is a small-group workshop designed to address chronic conditions, including diabetes.

Two trained peer facilitators deliver the six-week workshop. The workshop covers health strategies — addressing diet, exercise, and medication use — and teaches techniques for handling the mental and emotional aspects of the condition, managing symptoms, and communicating with healthcare providers.

The University of Virginia Diabetes Tele-Education Program offers diabetes education courses that teach diabetes self-management skills. The program is delivered through video conferencing technology and made available to people who have, or are at high risk for developing, diabetes.

Implementation Considerations It is important that patients understand the benefit of diabetes self-management activities. Program Clearinghouse Examples St. Luke's Miners Hospital Diabetes Outreach Program Tri-County Health Network Meadows Regional Medical Center Resources to Learn More Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support in Rural America Website An overview of the benefits of diabetes self-management programs.

Organization s : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support Website Provides links to resources and tools to help communities develop, promote, implement and sustain diabetes self-management education and support DSMES programs.

Rapid-acting insulin analogs [lispro insulin Humalog , insulin aspart] Has a clear appearance. Have an onset of action within 15 minutes of administration. The duration of action is 2 to 3 hours for Humalog and 3 to 5 hours for aspart.

Patient must eat immediately after injection to prevent hypoglycemia. Short-acting insulin regular insulin [regular Humulin R ] Short-acting insulins have a clear appearance, has an onset of action within 30 minutes of administration, duration of action is hours. Regular insulin is the only insulin approved for IV use.

Intermediate-acting insulin NPH insulin [neutral protamine Hagedorn NPH , insulin zinc suspension Lente ] They appear cloudy and have either protamine or zinc added to delay their action.

Onset of action for the intermediate-acting is one hour after administration; duration of action is 18 to 26 hours. This type of insulin should be inspected for flocculation, a frosted-whitish coating inside the bottle.

If frosted, it should not be used. Long-acting insulin [Ultralente, insulin glargine Lantus ] Have a clear appearance and do not need to be injected with a meal. Long-acting insulins have an onset of one hour after administration, and have no peak action because insulin is released into the bloodstream at a relatively constant rate.

Duration of action is 36 hours for Ultralente is 36 hours and glargine is at least 24 hours. They cannot be mixed with other insulin because they are in a suspension with a pH of 4, doing so will cause precipitation. Providing information about various insulin regimens empowers the patient to make an informed decision.

By understanding the potential benefits and costs of each regimen, the patient can actively participate in the selection process. Teach the patient about meal planning and its impact on insulin requirements.

Proper meal planning plays a significant role in managing blood glucose levels. The nurse should educate the patient on the relationship between food intake and insulin doses. For instance, rapid-acting or short-acting insulins are intended to cover the increase in glucose levels after meals, while intermediate-acting insulins help regulate subsequent meals.

Provide education on self-monitoring of blood glucose SMBG and carbohydrate counting. SMBG helps patients monitor their blood glucose levels and make necessary adjustments to insulin doses.

Teaching carbohydrate counting enables patients to match insulin doses to their food intake, providing flexibility in timing and content of meals. Instruct patients on practical information such as where to purchase and store insulin, syringes, and glucose monitoring supplies, as well as when and how to contact their primary healthcare provider.

Practical information ensures patients have the necessary tools and resources for self-management and know when to seek professional assistance. Instructing the patient on proper timing of insulin administration.

Different insulin preparations have varying onset, peak, and duration of action. It is crucial to educate the patient about the timing of insulin injections to ensure optimal glucose control. For example, rapid-acting insulins should be administered shortly before meals, while basal insulins should be taken consistently to maintain glucose levels irrespective of meals.

Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypo- and hyperglycemia. Diabetes management aims to maintain blood glucose levels within a target range. Hypoglycemia low blood sugar and hyperglycemia high blood sugar are potential complications. Regular monitoring and early detection of these conditions allow for prompt interventions to prevent further complications.

Provide support and education on preventing and managing hypoglycemia. Intensive insulin regimens pose a higher risk of hypoglycemia. Educating the patient about the signs, symptoms, and management of hypoglycemia helps prevent and address this potential complication. Educate patients on the importance of preparing insulin injections consistently and avoiding errors in dosing or using the wrong type of insulin.

Consistent preparation of insulin injections minimizes the risk of dosing errors and ensures proper insulin administration. Accurate preparation is crucial for achieving glycemic control and preventing adverse effects. Explain the recommended order for drawing up mixed insulins, with regular insulin being drawn up first.

Drawing up regular insulin before other types of insulin helps ensure accurate dosing and maintains consistency in technique. Following a specific order reduces the risk of incorrect insulin doses and promotes safe administration. Emphasize the importance of not injecting cloudy insulin into a vial of clear insulin to prevent contamination and alteration of insulin action.

Injecting cloudy insulin into a vial of clear insulin contaminates the entire vial, affecting its therapeutic properties and potentially leading to inconsistent glycemic control.

Patient adherence to proper injection techniques helps maintain insulin integrity and efficacy. Educate patients on alternative options if they have difficulty mixing insulins, such as using premixed insulins, prefilled syringes, or taking separate injections.

Providing information about alternative options supports patients in finding a suitable method for insulin administration that aligns with their individual needs and capabilities. These options ensure accurate dosing and simplify the injection process for patients who may have difficulties with mixing insulin.

Educate patients to refrigerate all unused insulin vials, including spare vials or pens, to maintain their effectiveness. Refrigeration helps preserve the potency of insulin and prevents degradation that can occur due to temperature fluctuations, ensuring the insulin remains effective for use.

Advise patients to avoid exposing insulin to extreme temperatures, such as freezing, direct sunlight, or hot car interiors. Extreme temperatures can compromise the efficacy of insulin, leading to potential fluctuations in blood glucose control.

It is important to protect insulin from temperature extremes to maintain its therapeutic value. Instruct patients to keep the insulin vial in use at room temperature to reduce the risk of local irritation at the injection site. Cold insulin can cause discomfort and local irritation upon injection, which can be minimized by allowing the insulin vial to reach room temperature.

This promotes patient comfort and improves adherence to insulin therapy. Educate patients about the storage duration of insulin vials, advising that if a vial will be used within 1 month, it can be kept at room temperature. Insulin can be safely stored at room temperature for up to one month without compromising its effectiveness.

This knowledge empowers patients to manage their insulin storage appropriately and ensures they have access to insulin that is ready for use.

Instruct patients to gently mix cloudy insulins by inverting the vial or rolling it between their hands before drawing the solution into a syringe or pen.

Cloudy insulins contain particles that need to be evenly distributed throughout the solution. Mixing the insulin ensures a consistent dose and promotes accurate administration. Emphasize the importance of checking the expiration date on all types of insulin before use. Expired insulin may have reduced efficacy or potency, which can lead to suboptimal blood glucose control.

Checking the expiration date helps ensure patients use insulin that is safe and effective. Teach patients to inspect bottles of intermediate-acting insulin for flocculation, which appears as a frosted, whitish coating inside the bottle.

Flocculation is an indication that the insulin has been exposed to extreme temperatures and may have lost its effectiveness. Discarding insulin with flocculation helps prevent administering compromised insulin and maintains proper glycemic control.

Ensure that the appropriate syringe size is selected to match the insulin concentration being used and on the different sizes of insulin syringes available 1mL, 0. Selecting the correct syringe size is crucial to accurately measure and draw up the prescribed insulin dose.

Using syringes with the appropriate capacity ensures accurate insulin administration and helps prevent dosing errors. Providing information about syringe sizes and their markings helps patients understand the available options and choose the most suitable syringe for their insulin needs.

Awareness of unit increments promotes accurate measurement and dosing. Instruct patients on the importance of using a new, disposable needle for each insulin injection. Using a new needle for each injection helps maintain needle sharpness, reduce discomfort, minimize the risk of infection, and ensure accurate insulin delivery.

It is essential for patient safety and proper injection technique. Advise patients to keep the needle capped when not in use to maintain cleanliness and sterility. Keeping the needle capped when not in use helps prevent contamination, maintain needle sterility, and reduce the risk of infection.

It ensures a safe and hygienic insulin administration process. Emphasize the importance of not sharing insulin syringes with others to prevent cross-contamination and the spread of infections.

Sharing syringes can transmit bloodborne infections, including viral diseases such as HIV and hepatitis. Educating patients about the risks associated with sharing syringes promotes safe injection practices and protects against potential health hazards.

Instruct patients on proper syringe disposal techniques, such as clipping off the needle or using a device that safely contains and disposes of the needle. Proper syringe disposal helps prevent accidental needlestick injuries, protects others from potential harm, and ensures the safe management of medical waste.

Teaching patients appropriate disposal methods promotes community safety and adherence to waste management regulations. Provide guidance on local regulations and resources for disposing of used syringes, including contacting the refuse company or waste authority for guidance.

Proper disposal of used syringes is essential to prevent environmental contamination and comply with local waste management regulations. Informing patients about available resources helps them navigate safe disposal practices effectively.

Educate patients on safe syringe transport during travel, advising them to pack used syringes in a secure container to prevent accidental needlesticks.

Traveling with used syringes requires careful handling to avoid injuries and maintain personal and public safety. Providing instructions on proper syringe transport reduces the risk of accidental needlesticks during travel. Insulin pump therapy is suitable for patients who desire continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and are willing to actively participate in self-management.

Provide extensive education on insulin pump use and self-management of blood glucose and insulin doses. Insulin pump therapy requires thorough education to ensure proper understanding and safe use of the device.

Educating the patient about insulin pump operation, insertion site care, troubleshooting techniques, blood glucose monitoring, and calculating insulin doses based on carbohydrate counting promotes effective self-management.

Teach the patient about potential risks and complications associated with insulin pump therapy. Patients need to be aware of potential risks and complications, such as occlusions in the infusion set or tubing, interruptions in insulin flow, and the increased risk of ketoacidosis.

Educating patients about recognizing signs of occlusions, administering manual injections when needed, and seeking prompt medical attention for any concerns helps minimize risks and promote patient safety.

Instruct the patient on proper care, maintenance, and replacement of the insulin pump. Proper care and maintenance of the insulin pump, including regular changing of infusion sets, is essential for optimal function and prevention of complications. Teaching the patient about proper hygiene, safe storage, battery replacement, and when to seek technical support helps ensure uninterrupted insulin delivery and device performance.

This monitoring allows for adjustments in insulin dosages and troubleshooting of any issues to maintain optimal glucose control. Provide support and addressing concerns related to wearing the pump.

Some patients may find wearing the insulin pump for 24 hours a day inconvenient or may have concerns about its visibility. Offering support, addressing concerns, and discussing options for temporary disconnection e. Insulin pens are suitable for patients who need to inject one type of insulin at a time or can use premixed insulins.

Instruct the patient on proper insulin pen technique and safety measures. Proper technique in using insulin pens ensures accurate dosage delivery and minimizes the risk of complications.

Education on how to load the insulin cartridge, dial the appropriate dose, attach the disposable needle, and perform the injection helps the patient use the device effectively and safely.

Teach the patient about storage and maintenance of insulin pens. Insulin pens should be stored properly to maintain the integrity of the insulin and the device. Educating the patient on storage conditions, such as avoiding extreme temperatures, and the need for regular cleaning and replacement of needles promotes optimal performance of the insulin pen.

This monitoring allows for adjustments in insulin dosages as needed to maintain optimal glucose control. Jet injectors are an alternative to needle injections for delivering insulin.

Provide thorough training and supervision for the patient when initiating jet injector use. Proper training is crucial when using jet injectors to ensure accurate and safe insulin delivery.

Providing comprehensive education on how to operate the device, maintain hygiene, and troubleshoot any issues helps the patient use the jet injector effectively and minimizes the risk of complications.

Educate the patient about the differences in insulin absorption rates, peak activity, and insulin levels with a jet injector.

Jet injectors may result in differences in insulin absorption rates compared to traditional needle injections.

Educating the patient about these variations helps them understand the potential differences in insulin action and adjust their self-management strategies accordingly.

Advise the patient about the possibility of bruising associated with jet injector use. Some patients may experience bruising at the injection site when using jet injectors. Informing the patient about this potential side effect helps manage their expectations and promotes early identification of any complications or adverse reactions.

Insulin administration can sometimes lead to local and systemic allergic reactions, with local reactions causing redness, swelling, tenderness, and wheals at the injection site. Systemic reactions are rare but can result in generalized urticaria or even anaphylaxis. Assess and monitor for local allergic reactions at the injection site.

Local allergic reactions, such as redness, swelling, tenderness, or wheal formation, can occur after insulin injections. Regular assessment of injection sites helps identify and monitor any allergic reactions.

If reactions persist, an alternative type of insulin can be prescribed. Educate the patient about systemic allergic reactions to insulin and the appropriate response.

Although rare, systemic allergic reactions can occur, presenting as generalized urticaria hives or even anaphylaxis. Patients should be aware of these potential reactions and know to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

Desensitization with gradually increasing insulin doses may be necessary for treatment. Educate the patient about insulin lipodystrophy and the importance of rotation of injection sites. Lipodystrophy refers to localized reactions at injection sites, including lipoatrophy loss of subcutaneous fat or lipohypertrophy fibrofatty masses.

Using human insulin has greatly reduced the occurrence of lipodystrophy. Patients should be educated about the importance of rotating injection sites to prevent the development of lipohypertrophy and delayed insulin absorption. Monitor for insulin resistance and collaborating with the healthcare team to adjust insulin doses.

Insulin resistance may occur in some patients with diabetes, requiring higher insulin doses for adequate glycemic control.

Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels and close collaboration with the healthcare team allow for adjustments in insulin doses to address insulin resistance and control diabetes symptoms effectively. Provide education on the causes of morning hyperglycemia and strategies to address it.

Morning hyperglycemia can result from the dawn phenomenon , insulin waning, or the Somogyi effect. Educating the patient about these causes helps them understand the importance of blood glucose monitoring during the night to determine the underlying cause. Adjustments in insulin doses and timing can be made accordingly to prevent morning hyperglycemia.

Teach the patient about proper timing of insulin administration to address insulin waning. Insulin waning refers to a progressive increase in blood glucose levels from bedtime to morning. Instructing the patient to administer the evening NPH insulin dose at bedtime rather than before dinner helps prevent insulin waning and ensures better glycemic control upon waking.

Oral antidiabetic agents are prescribed for patients with type 2 diabetes who do not respond effectively to medical nutrition therapy MNT and exercise alone. Understanding the different classes of oral antidiabetic agents and how they work can empower the patient to actively participate in their treatment plan and recognize the importance of medication adherence.

Oral antidiabetic agents are used for patients with type 2 diabetes who cannot effectively manage their condition through diet and exercise alone. Oral antidiabetic agents may include:.

Second-Generation Sulfonylureas [glipizide Glucotrol , glimepiride Amaryl , glyburide Diabeta ] Sulfonylureas stimulate insulin release from the beta cells in the pancreas.

They improve binding insulin to receptors and may increase number of insulin receptors. They are indicated as adjunct to diet and exercise MNT. They are more potent than first-generation sulfonylureas and can be used in combination with metformin or insulin to improve glucose control.

Biguanides [metformin Glucophage ] Biguanides decreased the product and increases the uptake of glucose in the liver. It is effective in lowering blood glucose and does not cause hypoglycemia as the sulfonylureas do.

It has been associated with development of lactic acidosis and GI distress and long term use may cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors [acarbose Precose , miglitol Glyset ] inhibit alpha-glucosidase, an enzyme that breaks down glucose for absorption. Therefore, they delay the absorption of glucose.

They have only a mild effect on glucose levels and do not enhance insulin secretion. They are associated with severe hepatic toxicity and GI distress. Non-Sulfonylurea Insulin Secretagogues [repaglinide Prandin , nateglinide Starlix ] Stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin.

It can be used alone or in combination with metformin to improve control of glucose. Thiazolidinediones or Glitazones [pioglitazone Actos , rosiglitazone Avandia ] Decreases insulin resistance by sensitizing the body to insulin and by stimulating insulin receptor sites to lower blood glucose and improve action of insulin.

Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 DPP-4 Inhibitors [sitagliptin Januvia , saxagliptin Onglyza , linagliptin Tradjenta ] Slows the breakdown of GLP-1 to prolong the effects of increased insulin secretion, decreased glucagon secretion, and slowed GI emptying ultimately producing improved glucose control.

Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Agonist GLP-1 [liraglutide Victoza , dulaglutide Trulicity ] Enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion and exhibit other antihyperglycemic actions following their release into the circulation from the gastrointestinal tract.

They may also lead to weight loss but can have side effects such as pancreatitis, diarrhea , nausea, and vomiting. Not suitable for patients with type 1 diabetes. Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 SGL-2 Inhibitors [dapagliflozin Forxiga , canagliflozin Invokana ] Increases urinary glucose excretion and lowers the renal threshold for glucose.

It is also prescribed to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events in patients with established cardiovascular disease and type 2 DM. This drug improves glycemic control by decreasing glucose concentration in the blood through increased urinary excretion and reduced renal absorption of glucose.

Educate the patient about the complementary nature of oral antidiabetic agents with other treatment modalities, such as medical nutrition therapy MNT and exercise. Reinforcing the importance of a comprehensive approach to diabetes management encourages the patient to adhere to a balanced diet and engage in regular physical activity, which can enhance the effectiveness of oral antidiabetic agents.

Hyperglycemia resulting from these conditions may require temporary discontinuation of oral antidiabetic agents and initiation of insulin therapy. Regular monitoring helps detect any fluctuations in blood glucose levels and informs appropriate medication adjustments.

Provide education on insulin therapy and its potential use in combination with oral agents, particularly for newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes who have symptomatic hyperglycemia and high blood glucose and A1C levels. Some patients may require insulin therapy as an adjunct to oral antidiabetic agents to achieve glycemic targets.

Educating the patient about insulin therapy helps alleviate any fears or misconceptions they may have and promotes acceptance and adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen. Emphasize the importance of regular follow-up visits and laboratory tests to evaluate the effectiveness of oral antidiabetic agents and make necessary adjustments.

Regular follow-up visits and laboratory tests enable healthcare providers to modify the treatment plan as needed. Encourage the patient to report any adverse effects or changes in symptoms related to oral antidiabetic agents promptly.

Early identification and management of adverse effects or changes in symptoms associated with oral antidiabetic agents are essential to prevent complications and optimize treatment outcomes. Open communication encourages patients to seek timely medical assistance when needed.

Proper nutrition and meal planning are essential for diabetes management. Educating patients about healthy food choices, portion control, and balanced meals can help them achieve and maintain optimal blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and blood pressure.

Calculations based on age, gender, height, and weight help determine the baseline caloric intake required for weight maintenance and overall health. This individualized approach supports accurate calorie control and ensures nutritional adequacy. Factoring in physical activity provides a more accurate estimation of energy needs and supports the patient in achieving their weight goals.

Subtract to calories from the daily total to promote a safe and gradual weight loss. To promote a 1- to 2-pound weight loss per week, a calorie deficit of to calories is recommended. This approach supports gradual weight loss, which is associated with better long-term success and reduces the risk of adverse effects.

Simplify meal planning information and provide opportunities for practice and repetition. Some aspects of meal planning, such as using food exchange systems, may be challenging for patients due to intellectual limitations or emotional barriers.

Simplifying information and providing opportunities for practice and repetition can enhance patient understanding and proficiency in meal planning techniques. This approach helps patients develop confidence and competence in managing their dietary choices and fosters long-term adherence.

Balancing the distribution of macronutrients is crucial for maintaining optimal nutrition and supporting blood glucose control. Educate the patient about the recommended percentages of calories from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Providing education on the recommended caloric distribution helps patients understand the importance of balancing macronutrients in their diet. By educating patients about the recommended percentages of calories from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, nurses empower patients to make informed dietary choices that support blood glucose control, lipid management, and overall health.

Highlight the importance of increased fiber intake for improved blood glucose levels and other health benefits. Increased fiber intake plays a significant role in improving blood glucose levels, lowering cholesterol, and promoting satiety.

Educating patients about the benefits of fiber-rich foods, such as legumes, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, encourages their inclusion in the meal plan and supports overall dietary and health goals. Gradually increase fiber intake in consultation with a dietitian to prevent adverse effects.

Sudden increases in fiber intake can lead to gastrointestinal discomfort and require adjustments in dosage of insulin or antidiabetic agents to prevent hypoglycemia. Gradually increasing fiber intake in consultation with a dietitian allows for proper monitoring and adjustment of the meal plan to mitigate potential adverse effects.

Educate patients about the use of exchange lists for meal planning. Exchange lists are a commonly used tool in nutritional management for individuals with diabetes. Educating patients about the concept of exchange lists helps them understand how foods can be organized into groups with similar characteristics, such as calorie content and macronutrient composition.

This knowledge enables patients to create a well-balanced meal plan that maintains consistency in nutrient intake while providing variety in food choices. You can learn more about the Food Exchange List here.

Teach patients how to read nutrition labels and understand carbohydrate content. Reading food labels is an essential skill for patients with diabetes when shopping for food. Understanding the carbohydrate content of foods listed on nutrition labels allows patients to make informed choices and accurately determine the amount of medication needed, particularly for those who require premeal insulin.

Explain the concept of carbohydrate counting and its flexibility in food choices. Carbohydrate counting is a popular nutritional tool used for blood glucose management in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Educating patients about carbohydrate counting helps them understand that carbohydrates have the most significant impact on blood glucose levels. This approach provides flexibility in food choices while maintaining blood glucose control. By incorporating carbohydrate counting into their meal planning, patients can achieve more accurate insulin management and maintain a balanced diet.

Educate patients about healthy food choices, portion control, and serving sizes. Encouraging patients to make healthy food choices and practice portion control is important for achieving and maintaining blood glucose control and weight management.

Teaching patients to measure servings or choices, such as using standard portion sizes or the MyPlate Food Guide, helps them understand appropriate portion sizes for different food groups. This approach can promote balanced nutrition, supports portion control, and simplifies meal planning for patients who may find more complicated systems challenging.

Discuss the concept of the glycemic index and its potential impact on blood glucose levels. The glycemic index measures how much a particular food increases blood glucose levels compared to an equivalent amount of glucose. Educating patients about the glycemic index helps them understand how different foods affect their blood glucose levels.

Encourage patients to monitor their blood glucose levels after consuming specific foods to create their own glycemic index.

Monitoring blood glucose levels after eating specific foods allows patients to assess the individual impact of those foods on their blood glucose control.

This personalized approach empowers patients to make dietary adjustments based on their own glycemic response. By using this information, patients can modify their meal plans and insulin doses accordingly, leading to improved blood glucose control and individualized diabetes management.

Emphasize consistent meal timing and portion control. Consistency in meal timing and portion control helps regulate blood glucose levels. Patients should be educated on the importance of regular meals and the distribution of caloric intake throughout the day.

Avoiding skipped meals prevents glucose fluctuations and excessive demands on the pancreas. Support patients in implementing lifestyle changes. Lifestyle changes, including dietary modifications and increased physical activity, are integral to diabetes management.

Nurses play a vital role in providing support, motivation, and education to help patients adopt and sustain these changes. Encourage weight loss and maintenance. Weight management is particularly important for obese patients with diabetes.

Losing weight can improve blood glucose control and reduce the need for medication. There is also substantial evidence indicating that managing obesity can significantly delay the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes and provides significant benefits in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Nurses should emphasize the significance of weight loss, provide guidance on healthy weight loss strategies, and offer ongoing support. Address emotional issues and provide psychological support related to dietary changes. Some patients may struggle with emotional issues, such as accepting the diagnosis of diabetes or experiencing feelings of deprivation and restriction in eating.

Providing psychological support and addressing these concerns helps patients navigate the emotional aspects of meal planning. Provide behavioral therapy and ongoing nutrition counseling.

Consistently following a meal plan and maintaining weight loss can be challenging. Behavioral therapy, group support, and ongoing nutrition counseling can help patients incorporate new dietary habits into their lifestyles and sustain positive changes.

Collaborate with a registered dietitian. Registered dietitians specialize in medical nutrition therapy MNT for diabetes management. Reinforce the role of the nurse in communicating relevant information to the dietitian and promoting patient understanding.

Effective communication between the nurse and the dietitian facilitates a coordinated and individualized approach to meal planning.

Educate patients about the importance of consistent eating habits and the relationship between food and insulin. Consistency in the amount of calories and carbohydrates ingested at each meal is crucial for patients requiring insulin to control blood glucose levels.

Educating patients about this relationship helps them understand the impact of food on insulin requirements and blood glucose control. It empowers patients to make informed choices about their meal timings and contents, fostering better glucose management. Emphasize the importance of moderation in alcohol consumption.

Educate patients about the potential adverse effects of alcohol specific to diabetes. Moderation is crucial when it comes to alcohol consumption for patients with diabetes. Educating patients about the recommended limits for alcohol intake helps them understand the need to consume alcoholic beverages in controlled quantities.

By promoting moderation, nurses assist patients in minimizing the potential negative impact of alcohol on their diabetes management. Caution patients about the risk of hypoglycemia associated with alcohol consumption.

Alcohol consumption can increase the risk of hypoglycemia, particularly for patients taking insulin or insulin secretagogues. Educating patients about the potential effects of alcohol on blood glucose levels helps them understand the importance of consuming food along with alcohol to prevent hypoglycemia.

By providing this information, nurses empower patients to make informed decisions about alcohol consumption and take appropriate measures to prevent hypoglycemia. Encourage patients to incorporate food intake along with alcohol consumption. Consuming food along with alcohol can help reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.

By advising patients to have a meal or snack when consuming alcohol, nurses help ensure that patients maintain stable blood glucose levels. However, it is important to note that carbohydrates consumed with alcohol may raise blood glucose levels.

Providing this guidance helps patients strike a balance and make informed choices regarding food intake when consuming alcohol.

If you know someone living with type 2 diabetes, you can offer support, comfort, and kindness in a number of ways.

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New research has revealed that diabetes remission is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Type 2…. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Type 2 Diabetes. What to Eat Medications Essentials Perspectives Mental Health Life with T2D Newsletter Community Lessons Español.

Type 2 Diabetes Self-Care: Blood Sugar, Mental Health, Medications, and Meals. Medically reviewed by Kelly Wood, MD — By Jennifer M.

Edwards on September 7, Importance of T2D self-care Blood sugar Most common medications Food choices Getting diabetes education Mental health Takeaway The focus in managing type 2 diabetes includes blood sugar monitoring, taking your prescribed medications as needed, and working with a healthcare team on food choices, exercise planning, and mental health.

Why is type 2 diabetes management important? How often should you check your blood sugar with type 2 diabetes? What should your blood sugar levels be? Was this helpful? Most common type 2 diabetes medications. What foods should you eat with type 2 diabetes? Do I need diabetes education? Developing a diabetes care plan You may need to work with a healthcare team to figure out a diabetes care plan that works best for you.

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