Category: Children

Antioxidant supplements for exercise recovery

Antioxidant supplements for exercise recovery

Fuster-Munoz et al. Free Radic Res. However, these reductions su;plements so Pomegranate farming techniques that they were Antioxiidant to Exerckse any difference. We supplemenrs the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, SPORTDiscus, trial registers, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings up to February Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Lyall K, Hurst S, Cooney J, Jensen D, Lo K, Hurst R, et al.

Antioxidant supplements for exercise recovery -

A Cochrane Review Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise published December gathers together the best available evidence on antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise. This measure is good no matter the incidence of events i.

common or infrequent. of delayed-onset muscle soreness after engaging in strenuous physical activities. The Cochrane review Cochrane Reviews are systematic reviews. includes 50 studies, all comparing high-dose antioxidant supplementation with a placebo An intervention that appears to be the same as that which is being assessed but does not have the active component.

For example, a placebo could be a tablet made of sugar, compared with a tablet containing a medicine. a dummy pill or drink with no antioxidant. The type and dose of antioxidant varied, but all were higher than the recommended daily amount, and the type of exercise also varied but was enough to cause muscle soreness.

Of the people taking part in the studies, almost nine out of ten were male, and their ages ranged from 16 to Most were recreationally active or moderately trained. Dr Mayur Ranchordas, Senior Lecturer in Sport and Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism at Sheffield Hallam University, who was the lead author of this review, explains:.

However, these reductions were so small that they were unlikely to make any difference. This remains uncertain, as only nine studies reported on this and the evidence quality The certainty or quality of evidence is the extent to which we can be confident that what the research tells us about a particular treatment effect is likely to be accurate.

Concerns about factors such as bias can reduce the certainty of the evidence. Evidence may be of high certainty; moderate certainty; low certainty or very-low certainty. Cochrane has adopted the GRADE approach Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation for assessing certainty or quality of evidence.

Enjoy your pomegranate juice, but know that antioxidant supplementation does not appear to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. Join in the conversation on Twitter with JoeCostelloPhD CochraneUK SarahChapman30 or leave a comment on the blog. Ranchordas MK , Rogerson D , Soltani H , Costello JT.

Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews In systematic reviews we search for and summarize studies that answer a specific research question e.

DOI: Cochrane, News [online]. Taking antioxidant supplements to reduce muscles soreness after exercise could have almost no effect, according to a new Cochrane Review [press release]. Sarah's work as a Knowledge Broker at Cochrane UK focuses on sharing Cochrane evidence through social media, including Evidently Cochrane blogs, with a particular interest in making evidence quick and easy for patients and others making health choices, and healthcare professionals, to understand and use.

She is a Patient Ambassador for the COACH trial, a randomised trial to compare cochlear implants and hearing aids for people who hear slightly more than the current eligibility threshold for a cochlear implant.

She is also a former Registered General Nurse. Approval for this study was granted by the Human Subjects Institutional Review Board of Skidmore College IRB — and is in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki as revised in This study was conducted using a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design Fig.

Subjects were randomly assigned to consume ml of sugar flavored water CHO control; 31 g of Country Time Berry Lemonade, H. Heinz Company Brands LLC. Carbohydrate was chosen as a control as CHO supplementation has not been demonstrated to enhance or impair the recovery from eccentric exercise [ 27 , 28 ].

Supplements were consumed within a 2 min period after the ECC, and then immediately after the assessments at 6 h, as well as within 2 h prior to the 24 h assessment. To minimize the impact of diet, all subjects were given an example low antioxidant diet to follow for the day preceding and the day of the study See Additional file 1 : Table S1.

To assess dietary intakes between groups and determine compliance a 2 day dietary record was obtained over the study period and analyzed. To characterize the participants, height and weight were measured using standard techniques and body fat percentage, body fat mass, and fat-free mass were measured using the air displacement plethysmography technique BodPod, Cosmed, Chicago, IL.

Subjects reported to the lab after an overnight fast ~12 a. Assessments of peak isokinetic torque PIKT and peak isometric torque PIMT of the knee extensor muscles of the right leg, as well as perceived muscle soreness MS and thigh circumference measures were obtained prior to the performance of maximal ECCs of the knee extensors of the right leg, immediately after ECC, and at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h post-ECC Fig.

All measurements were obtained from the right leg on all study participants and all non-involved body parts were immobilized throughout all Cybex testing to remove superfluous movement.

Both static and dynamic muscle actions were chosen as previous research has suggested the temporal response between muscle actions may differ [ 6 ], and dynamic muscle actions more closely mimic those often used in sport or occupational performance.

PIKT and PIMT were assessed using the HUMAC NORM Cybex ergometer which has been demonstrated to be a reliable ergometer [ 29 , 30 ].

After 5 min of easy cycling ~1 kp on an ergometer Monark E; Vansbro, Sweden , participants subsequently performed a warm up set of 3 repetitions on the Cybex.

PIMT was determined by using the best of 3 maximal isometric contractions of the knee extensors with the knee flexed at an angle of 90°.

For isokinetic measurements, after a warm up set of 5 repetitions, subjects performed 1 set of 5 repetitions of isokinetic contractions of the knee extensors, through an individually determined range of motion ~90° at an angular velocity of 40° s The highest value obtained during the 5 repetitions was recorded and ranged from to ft.

of peak torque. The total warm up lasted approximately 7—10 min. As eccentric contractions may alter sarcomere length, and the optimal length for tension development [ 1 ], optimal joint angle, a surrogate for length, was recorded, amongst other variables obtained from the dynamometer. Body position, approximate axis of rotation of the knee joint and dynamometer lever arm length were recorded and thus consistent for all trials for each volunteer.

Verbal encouragement was provided during all contractions to ensure maximal effort and was consistent between sessions and participants. The minimum eccentric torque needed to lower the arm and initiate the dynamometer was ~5 ft lb.

Muscle soreness was evaluated using a visual analog scale VAS [ 31 ]. Subjects were seated with right leg in passive 90° of flexion at the beginning of the soreness evaluation and instructed to extend the knee of the right leg parallel to the floor to full extension.

Subjects then placed a mark at the point on the VAS corresponding to their perception of the soreness of the right quadriceps muscle. This was done both unweighted and weighted with a 5-kg mass suspended from the ankle. Muscle soreness was quantified by using the measured distance mm from the left end of the continuum to the mark made by the subject.

Additionally, a Gulick tape measure was used to quantify the circumference of the right thigh at the midpoint between the greater trochanter of the femur and the knee joint to assess for localized swelling.

This location was marked with a permanent marker as means of standardization and to maintain consistency during follow-up measurements. On the first day of testing, following baseline measures, subjects performed maximal eccentric contractions ECCs of the knee extensors of the right leg on a HUMAC NORM isokinetic dynamometer Boston, USA at an angular velocity of 40° s-1 through an 80° range of motion Fig.

To the initiate each ECC, subjects performed a brief concentric contraction against the dynamometer lever arm of approximately 5 ft lb.

The knee extensors were relaxed at the end of each ECC, and during the recovery phase the relaxed leg was returned to the starting position by the dynamometer. The dynamometer provides real-time feedback to monitor effort during the ECC.

This protocol was chosen as it has been used previously, with success, to determine the impact of dietary interventions on muscle soreness and function [ 17 ]. Verbal encouragement was provided to ensure maximal effort in a consistent manner during all contractions for all participants.

A one way analysis of variance ANOVA was used to compare baseline parameters between the three supplement groups. To account for potential minor variations in baseline muscle function ie.

PIMT, PIKT , muscle function was normalized to initial and represented as the change from baseline. Alpha was set, a priori, at 0. All data was presented as mean ± standard error of the mean SE. No significant differences were observed for age, height, weight, percent body fat, fat free mass, and initial thigh circumference between groups Table 1.

There were no significant differences between the groups at the start of ECC testing. There were no differences in vitamin A, vitamin C, potassium, sodium, calcium, and iron intake between groups Table 2. When expressed as percent of baseline Fig. Data are mean ± SE.

Peak isokinetic torque, also exhibited a significant drop in torque over time Fig. All groups experienced a significant increase in unweighted and weighted muscle soreness following the ECC Fig. The Impact of Supplementation on Changes in Muscle Soreness and Swelling. Collectively, the current findings support protein supplementation to enhance recovery of muscle function and the addition of antioxidants to act synergistically to reduce perceived muscle soreness, in the hours immediately following ECC exercise.

Thus, the combination of protein and antioxidants may be an important consideration in developing and implementing strategies to aid in muscle recovery during the acute h time period following a bout of exhaustive eccentric exercise.

For instance, the CrossFit games, wrestling tournaments, powerlifting competitions, tennis tournaments, etc. Thus, developing supplementation strategies to improve recovery and reduce muscle soreness, might improve performance in such settings.

In terms of aiding recovery of muscle function from resistance exercise or eccentric exercise, supplementation with protein or amino acids post-exercise has been demonstrated to enhance recovery [ 17 , 19 , 20 , 22 ].

Regarding isometric muscle function, previous work by Buckley and colleagues [ 17 ] found that consumption of whey protein hydrolysate resulted in a quicker recovery in peak isometric torque following ECC, with complete recovery at 6 h post exercise.

However, unlike the Buckley et al. study [ 17 ], and others [ 18 ], which found supplementation with protein completely restored and even surpassed baseline peak isometric torque [ 17 ], we did not find resolution of force within the same observed timeframe Fig.

Although total work between groups was not reported in these earlier studies, even concentric muscle force contractions are suppressed following high intensity work [ 32 ]. In any case and even though our measurements did not extend to 48 h post ECC, the pattern of our reported muscle function data Figs.

As muscle function, broadly defined, is impaired following ECC, the magnitude and temporal pattern may depend upon contraction type; specifically, static versus dynamic, and concentric versus eccentric [ 5 , 6 ]. Thus, in agreement with previous studies [ 18 ], the present study suggests protein supplementation following ECC does, in fact, improve recovery of dynamic muscle function.

Furthermore, previous research has demonstrated that supplementation with antioxidants derived from fruit improves recovery of muscle function following fatiguing eccentric exercise [ 7 , 8 , 9 ], though not all agree [ 34 ]. In the current study, using an antioxidant derived from anthocyanin extract from mixed berries, we found no synergistic effect of supplementing with both protein and antioxidants, or the antioxidant offered no obvious additional benefit beyond that of protein alone Figs.

In agreement, previous studies have also found no effect of antioxidant supplementation using either vitamin C or fruit, berry and vegetable concentrate on muscle recovery [ 10 , 11 , 34 ]. In contrast, previous studies using either a berry or fruit derived antioxidant supplement demonstrate an interaction between groups with no clear direction of improved muscle function [ 9 ] or show enhanced recovery of muscle function with a pre-loading period prior to ECC [ 8 ].

Collectively, future work is needed to determine if optimal dosing strategy, types of antioxidants, may influence the impact of antioxidant supplementation on muscle function following fatiguing eccentric exercise.

Decline in muscle function, athletic performance, and intensification of muscle soreness are all correlated to the damaging effects of eccentric exercise on muscle. Studies investigating the effect of protein or amino acids on muscle soreness following ECC have yielded both positive [ 19 , 20 , 22 ] and null [ 17 , 18 , 23 , 28 ] effects.

While there was a significant time effect for increased thigh circumference indicative of swelling and localized inflammatory responses, no group or group by time effects were found.

The current finding supports prior work suggesting antioxidant supplementation may reduce muscle soreness following ECC [ 7 , 11 , 34 ], although the positive effect of antioxidants on muscle soreness is not unanimous [ 8 , 9 , 10 ].

Although the precise mechanism s for reduced muscle soreness is unknown, it may be related to either the high leucine or essential amino acid content within whey protein [ 35 ], antioxidants potential to reduce muscle soreness following ECC exercise [ 36 ], or may be related to the many bioactives present within various forms of whey protein.

In any case, this finding may prove beneficial in scenarios where subsequent bouts with inadequate recovery are necessitated e. tournament play, multiple sport events, military or occupational scenarios.

While the findings of this study demonstrate improved muscle function, and attenuated muscle soreness with combined protein and antioxidant supplementation, further evaluation of this recovery strategy is necessary.

Specifically, the type, dose, and dosing strategy pre-loading, frequency of dosing, etc. likely needs optimization. Additionally, while muscle function is paramount, analysis of blood markers of muscle damage and oxidative stress, could provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of protein and antioxidant supplementation in the recovery of muscle soreness and function following eccentric exercise.

On the contrary, previous studies which have measured blood markers of oxidative stress or muscle damage e. creatine kinase that were discordant with function [ 3 , 8 , 9 , 11 , 34 ], in that muscle function would be improved but not oxidative markers, or vice versa, calling into question the value of such measurements.

Collectively, a combined protein antioxidant supplement is likely beneficial in the recovery from eccentric exercise, and may be relevant for novice exercisers or in athletic or occupational scenarios where a repeated bout is required before full recovery is allowed.

Proske U, Morgan DL. Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications. J Physiol. Article CAS Google Scholar. Pereira Panza VS, Diefenthaeler F, da Silva EL.

Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: is including antioxidants enough? Petersen EW, Ostrowski K, Ibfelt T, Richelle M, Offord E, Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Pedersen BK.

Effect of vitamin supplementation on cytokine response and on muscle damage after strenuous exercise. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. Michailidis Y, Karagounis LG, Terzis G, Jamurtas AZ, Spengos K, Tsoukas D, Chatzinikolaou A, Mandalidis D, Stefanetti RJ, Papassotiriou I, et al.

Thiol-based antioxidant supplementation alters human skeletal muscle signaling and attenuates its inflammatory response and recovery after intense eccentric exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. Byrne C, Eston R. The effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on isometric and dynamic knee extensor strength and vertical jump performance.

J Sports Sci. Article Google Scholar. Maximal-intensity isometric and dynamic exercise performance after eccentric muscle actions. Connolly DA, McHugh MP, Padilla-Zakour OI, Carlson L, Sayers SP. Efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in preventing the symptoms of muscle damage.

Br J Sports Med. discussion Machin DR, Christmas KM, Chou T-H, Hill SC, Van Pelt DW, Trombold JR, Coyle EF. Effects of differing dosages of pomegranate juice supplementation after eccentric exercise. Phys J. Google Scholar. McLeay Y, Barnes MJ, Mundel T, Hurst SM, Hurst RD, Stannard SR.

Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Connolly DA, Lauzon C, Agnew J, Dunn M, Reed B. The effects of vitamin C supplementation on symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Bryer SC, Goldfarb AH. Effect of high dose vitamin C supplementation on muscle soreness, damage, function, and oxidative stress to eccentric exercise.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Teixeira VH, Valente HF, Casal SI, Marques AF, Moreira PA. Antioxidants do not prevent postexercise peroxidation and may delay muscle recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Bagchi D, Roy S, Patel V, He G, Khanna S, Ojha N, Phillips C, Ghosh S, Bagchi M, Sen CK.

Safety and whole-body antioxidant potential of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation of edible berries. Mol Cell Biochem. Bagchi D, Sen CK, Bagchi M, Atalay M. Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula.

Biochemistry Mosc. Merry TL, Ristow M. Do antioxidant supplements interfere with skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise training? Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, Goodenough C, O'Connor A, Simbo S, Barringer N, Mertens-Talcott SU, Rasmussen C, Greenwood M, et al.

Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males.

Buckley JD, Thomson RL, Coates AM, Howe PR, DeNichilo MO, Rowney MK. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise. J Sci Med Sport. Etheridge T, Philp A, Watt PW. A single protein meal increases recovery of muscle function following an acute eccentric exercise bout.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Nosaka K, Sacco P, Mawatari K. Effects of amino acid supplementation on muscle soreness and damage. Shimomura Y, Yamamoto Y, Bajotto G, Sato J, Murakami T, Shimomura N, Kobayashi H, Mawatari K. Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle. J Nutr.

Papacosta E, Nassis GP, Gleeson M. Effects of acute postexercise chocolate milk consumption during intensive judo training on the recovery of salivary hormones, salivary SIgA, mood state, muscle soreness, and judo-related performance.

Ra SG, Miyazaki T, Ishikura K, Nagayama H, Komine S, Nakata Y, Maeda S, Matsuzaki Y, Ohmori H. Combined effect of branched-chain amino acids and taurine supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle damage in high-intensity eccentric exercise.

Farup J, Rahbek SK, Knudsen IS, de Paoli F, Mackey AL, Vissing K. Whey protein supplementation accelerates satellite cell proliferation during recovery from eccentric exercise.

Amino Acids. Rathbone CR, Wenke JC, Warren GL, Armstrong RB. Importance of satellite cells in the strength recovery after eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury. Am J Phys. CAS Google Scholar. Chatterjee A, Yasmin T, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ. Inhibition of helicobacter pylori in vitro by various berry extracts, with enhanced susceptibility to clarithromycin.

Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Vinson JA, Bagchi D. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res.

Journal of the DEXA scan for body composition Society of Sports Nutrition volume 14 Antioxidant supplements for exercise recovery, Article number: Antioxidant supplements for exercise recovery Cite Antoxidant article. Metrics details. An recovedy bout of eccentric contractions ECC cause muscle fiber damage, inflammation, Anhioxidant muscle exetcise MF and muscle soreness MS. Individually, protein PRO and antioxidant AO supplementation may improve some aspects of recovery from ECC, though have yet to be combined. Sixty sedentary college-aged males participated in a randomized, single—blind, parallel design study of peak isometric torque PIMTpeak isokinetic torque PIKTthigh circumference TCand muscle soreness MS of knee extensor muscles measured at baseline, immediately after and 1, 2, 6, and 24 h after completion of maximal ECC.

Antioxidant supplements for exercise recovery -

In fact, it seems muscle soreness is actually an important part of the recovery process, and helps to make your muscles stronger and bigger over time.

Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis.

JAMA ; 8 : — Paulsen G, Cumming KT, Holden G, Hallén J, Rønnestad BR, Sveen O, et al. Vitamin C and E supplementation hampers cellular adaptation to endurance training in humans: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

Journal of Physiology ; 8 — Powers SK, Jackson MJ. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiological Reviews ; 88 4 — Ranchordas MK, Rogerson D, Soltani H, Costello JT.

Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , Issue DOI: Teixeira VH, Valente HF, Casal SI, Marques AF, Moreira PA.

Antioxidants do not prevent postexercise peroxidation and may delay muscle recovery. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise ; 41 9 — PUBMED: ]. Most were recreationally active or moderately trained.

Dr Mayur Ranchordas, Senior Lecturer in Sport and Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism at Sheffield Hallam University, who was the lead author of this review, explains:. However, these reductions were so small that they were unlikely to make any difference. This remains uncertain, as only nine studies reported on this and the evidence quality The certainty or quality of evidence is the extent to which we can be confident that what the research tells us about a particular treatment effect is likely to be accurate.

Concerns about factors such as bias can reduce the certainty of the evidence. Evidence may be of high certainty; moderate certainty; low certainty or very-low certainty. Cochrane has adopted the GRADE approach Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation for assessing certainty or quality of evidence.

Enjoy your pomegranate juice, but know that antioxidant supplementation does not appear to reduce muscle soreness after exercise.

Join in the conversation on Twitter with JoeCostelloPhD CochraneUK SarahChapman30 or leave a comment on the blog. Ranchordas MK , Rogerson D , Soltani H , Costello JT. Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews In systematic reviews we search for and summarize studies that answer a specific research question e. DOI: Cochrane, News [online]. Taking antioxidant supplements to reduce muscles soreness after exercise could have almost no effect, according to a new Cochrane Review [press release].

Sarah's work as a Knowledge Broker at Cochrane UK focuses on sharing Cochrane evidence through social media, including Evidently Cochrane blogs, with a particular interest in making evidence quick and easy for patients and others making health choices, and healthcare professionals, to understand and use.

She is a Patient Ambassador for the COACH trial, a randomised trial to compare cochlear implants and hearing aids for people who hear slightly more than the current eligibility threshold for a cochlear implant.

She is also a former Registered General Nurse. Antioxidants: can they really reduce muscle soreness after exercise? Only nine studies reported on adverse effects and only two found adverse effects.

The evidence for muscle soreness is considered to be 'moderate' or 'low' quality. This was mainly because the majority of studies had aspects that could have affected the reliability of their results and in some cases because of variation in the results of the studies.

Dr Mayur Ranchordas, senior lecturer in sport and nutrition and exercise metabolism at Sheffield Hallam said: "Many people take antioxidant supplements or antioxidant-enriched foods before and after exercise in the belief that these will prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise.

For example, in professional football, when there is a period of fixture congestion, a team may play three matches in an eight day period e. Premier League fixtures Saturday to Saturday separated by a mid-week Champions League fixture , dietary antioxidants could be strategically used to reduce inflammation and muscle soreness.

This would allow the players to recovery more quickly in preparation for the next match. In professional cycling, a Tour de France rider may take antioxidant supplements to accelerate recovery after each stage, in order to recover more quickly for the following day's stage.

Taking Antioxidannt antioxidants in the form of Pomegranate farming techniques e. tablets, capsules, powders or antioxidant-enriched foods e. food concentrates in doses Antioxidant supplements for exercise recovery higher than the recommended amounts up to 10 times the Herbal appetite suppressants daily Ahtioxidant several days before suoplements after exercise has been proposed as a way to prevent or reduce muscle soreness. Moreover, unaccustomed, eccentric or exhaustive exercise may also induce inflammatory reactions that contribute to increased reactive oxygen species production and reduced antioxidant defences, causing exercise-induced muscle damage and subsequent muscle soreness Tsai et al. Reducing DOMS could be beneficial to athletes returning from injury i. after a period of inactivityand might help sedentary and older individuals recover from unaccustomed physical activity.

Video

10 Honest Longevity Supplements that I Wish I Started Taking Sooner Antioxidant supplements for exercise recovery

Author: Todal

3 thoughts on “Antioxidant supplements for exercise recovery

  1. Ich denke, dass Sie sich irren. Geben Sie wir werden es besprechen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden reden.

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com