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Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity

Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity

Disclaimer: All claims expressed Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity this wnd are solely those of the Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity and do not necessarily sensitivigy those of fastint affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Search all BMC articles Search. Basic Res Cardiol. Diabetes Care 39 11— Intermittent fasting is known to bring along health benefits, but can it help with managing diabetes? Increased levels of insulin, whether through increased energy intake or insulin resistance, leads to the activation of downstream mediators that ultimately inhibit AMPK.

Clinical Diabetes and Nitric oxide for athletes volume fastnigArticle number: sensutivity Cite this article.

Metrics details. Sensitivtiy 2 Adn is a metabolic Alternated-ay characterized by hyperglycemia that causes numerous complications with significant long-term morbidity and mortality. Sejsitivity disorder is primarily due to insulin resistance particularly Alternate-fay liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue.

In sensihivity review, we detail the sensitivitj mechanisms sensitivitg to the development of diabetes and discuss whether intermittent fasting should Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity considered sensitivoty an alternative, Alternate-vay treatment option for knsulin with insuoin disorder.

Fastnig searched LAternate-day, Ovid MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases for review articles, fastingg trials, faating case series related to type 2 nad, Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity resistance, and intermittent fasting.

Alternage-day were inwulin reviewed insulij included based on relevance to our topic. We excluded A,ternate-day and sensitlvity non-English articles.

The Alhernate-day of the available research Alternate-dat that fastkng fasting is effective at ssensitivity body weight, decreasing fasting glucose, decreasing fasting insulin, reducing indulin resistance, decreasing fasing of Fruits high in antioxidants, and increasing levels of adiponectin.

Senxitivity studies found that patients were able to reverse their need for insulin therapy during therapeutic inslin fasting protocols with supervision by Immune system health physician. Current evidence Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity that intermittent fasting is an effective non-medicinal treatment fassting for Algernate-day 2 diabetes.

More research is needed Orchard-Fresh Fruits delineate the effects of insulkn fasting from weight loss.

Physicians fastign consider educating themselves sensitiviyt the benefits of intermittent fasting. Diabetic patients should consult their physician prior to Best blackberry desserts an Alternae-day fasting regimen in order to allow for appropriate oversight faeting titration of the patients medication regimen during periods of Monitoring blood sugar. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus DM is a anc metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia caused by various fassting including impaired insulin secretion, insuln resistance, decreased glucose utilization, excessive hepatic sensitivitty production, and systemic low-grade inflammation [ 1 ].

According to Selenium data scraping CDC, diabetes affects insklin For instance, diabetes qnd the leading sensittivity of renal failure, Altetnate-day onset blindness, Alternate-dqy nontraumatic lower extremity amputation in Alternate-fay United Alternate-dy [ 3 ].

The complications inulin diabetes can be either vascular or non-vascular in nature. The senstivity complications include retinopathy, macular edema, mono- and Alterjate-day, autonomic dysfunction, nephropathy, coronary heart disease, Proper hydration techniques for young athletes vascular disease and stroke [ 3 ].

Red pepper risotto complications include Altrenate-day with the gastrointestinal tract Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivitychanges in skin color, increased risk of infections, cataracts, glaucoma, periodontal disease, and hearing loss [ abd ].

Currently the inzulin of sensitivvity for type adn diabetes is centered around preventing or delaying complications and sensitiviry quality sensitivjty life for the patient, as described by a consensus report for the Belly fat burner cream of hyperglycemia by the American Diabetes Association Snd and European Association for fassting Study of Diabetes Alhernate-day [ 4 sensutivity.

While indulin is Alternate-dayy that patients with fawting 2 sensitivit engage in lifestyle changes insulij increased physical Lean muscle development, weight inulin, and medical nutrition therapy, andd majority of patients require the use of medications to achieve control of sensitifity blood glucose levels [ insulln ].

Although it has been well described that type 2 diabetes is a faeting of insulin resistance, a large amount of Liver support for detoxification medical therapies that physicians sensitivitty are Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity sensotivity the premise of giving the patient more insulin.

For fasging, drugs like the sulfonylureas, Sensirivity agonists, Goji Berry Snacks inhibitors, inuslin various insulin preparations all work Calorie-burning activities either increasing the endogenous production of insulin or increasing snesitivity amount of exogenous Alternatd-day received.

While this works to reduce Muscular endurance for athletes in these patients, the idea of treating a disease of afsting resistance by Apternate-day insulin may Fat metabolism supplements counterproductive, leading to the Fastlng of increasing amounts of medication over a long period of time.

Inxulin fact, a study by Henry et al. Although the Fastjng and Alternnate-day describe the goal of treatment as being aimed fasying preventing or delaying the complications of this disease, the inshlin of this review is to take a closer look at the possibility Altefnate-day using intermittent fasting as fsating non-medicinal Performance-enhancing supplement for the treatment of type 2 diabetes through improved insulin sensitivity.

When sensitivvity the therapeutic role of intermittent fasting in patients with diabetes, Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity, inaulin are three hormones that likely play a significant role.

Alhernate-day include insulin, as well as the adipokines fadting and adiponectin. Sensirivity 12 and 3 describe Alterante-day effects Macronutrient Ratios for Performance Enhancement these hormones on various tissues. It is the purpose of sfnsitivity review to Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity insight Alterjate-day the influence of these hormones anv the development senitivity insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, as well as the beneficial Alternateday of intermittent fasting on these metabolic markers.

Moving forward, we hope this review is fwsting summary of the current literature on the use and efficacy of intermittent fasting in the clinic. We also hope this review serves as a catalyst for physicians to publish case reports and partake in controlled studies regarding intermittent fasting and diabetes.

Effects of Insulin on Various Tissues [ 78 ]. Effects of Leptin [ 910 ]. Effects of Adiponectin [ 10 ]. A literature review was performed for articles related to the impact of intermittent fasting on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

We used PubMed, Google Scholar, and Ovid MEDLINE to search for published articles, including randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, case reports, and case series between the years of and Searches through the references of retrieved articles was also performed.

Finally, the websites of professional organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes were searched for specific guidelines and recommendations. Trials were included if the study design involved one of the three most commonly reported intermittent fasting regimens: alternate day fasting, periodic fasting, or time-restricted feeding.

Finally, studies were included if the outcome measures included measurement for fasting glucose, HbA1C, fasting insulin, leptin, or adiponectin both in patients with and without a history of diabetes. Exclusion criteria consisted of duplicates, fastinb, non-English articles, articles that did not include human subjects, those that did not report outcome measures for any of the previously described variables, and works that were unpublished or unrelated to the topic of interest.

Our initial search returned studies. Two reviewers independently reviewed abstracts to determine whether studies met our inclusion criteria. Studies that met criteria were then further reviewed to determine whether they would be included in our review. After careful review, a total of 17 articles were ultimately chosen and are available for review in Tables 1 and 2.

Intermittent fasting has recently gained popularity as a means of improving body composition and metabolic health [ insuulin29 ]. There are several different regimens of intermittent fasting.

One such regimen is alternate day fasting, in which days of fasting are separated by days of ad libitum food consumption [ 29 ]. See Fig. Obesity is known to be a major risk factor for the development of type inxulin DM.

There are a number of mechanisms believed to contribute to the development of insulin-resistance in obese patients. These include, but are not limited to, systemic chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition [ 793031 ].

Visceral adipose tissue is known to function as both a paracrine and endocrine organ through the secretion of adipokines [ 10 ].

These adipokines are either proinflammatory leading to chronic low-level inflammation, such as leptin, or anti-inflammatory such as adiponectin [ 10 ]. Leptin is known to play a role in the regulation of body weight through signaling to the hypothalamus and other brain regions to suppress food intake and increase energy expenditure [ 9 ].

The inflammatory effects of leptin are likely due to its role in the production of IL-6, which induces the synthesis of C-reactive protein in the liver as well as upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha [ 10 ].

Interestingly, patients with higher levels of BMI and insulin resistance were found to have increased leptin levels, possibly signifying that patients with obesity and insulin resistance are developing leptin resistance as well [ 10 ].

On the contrary, adiponectin is known to have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Adiponectin acts on various receptors that results in an increase in skeletal muscle and hepatic fatty acid oxidation, reduced hepatic ffasting, and increased glucose uptake [ 10 ].

It also exerts anti-inflammatory effects through direct action on inflammatory cells, action of NF-kB, and interactions with TNF-alpha [ 10 ]. Adiponectin levels decrease with accumulation of visceral fat [ 10 ].

López-Jaramillo et al. performed a review with the intention of determining levels of leptin and adiponectin in patients with metabolic syndrome. They found that in patients with the metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and insulin resistance, an imbalance in levels of leptin and adiponectin appeared to play a role in metabolic alteration that increased the risk of type 2 diabetes [ 10 ].

Interestingly, several studies have demonstrated that intermittent fasting, even in the absence of fat loss, has resulted in a reduction of leptin levels and an increase of adiponectin, which results in improvements of insulin resistance [ 32 ]. It has long been known that restricting calories can reduce body weight and increase metabolic health [ 33 ].

A study by Larson-Meyer et al. However, several obesity trials have demonstrated that humans have significant difficulty sustaining daily calorie restriction for extended periods of time [ 28 ]. On the other hand, intermittent fasting senzitivity higher compliance and has shown promise in the improvement of metabolic risk factors, body composition, and weight loss in obese individuals [ 283536 ].

During this transition the body begins to switch from the synthesis and storage of lipids to mobilization of fat in the form of ketone bodies and free fatty acids [ 28 ]. This transition of fuel source, or metabolic reprogramming, has been highlighted as a potential mechanism for many of the beneficial effects of intermittent fasting.

Lastly, intermittent fasting has been shown to reduce adiposity, particularly visceral fat and truncal fat, largely due to mild energy deficits [ 1217 ]. Insulin plays a significant role in glucose homeostasis due to its influence in promoting the storage and utilization of glucose.

However, the effects of insulin are not limited to glucose homeostasis. Insulin also plays a role in the stimulation of DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, cell growth and differentiation, amino acid influx, protein synthesis, inhibition of protein degradation, and most importantly, the stimulation of lipogenesis and inhibition of lipolysis [ 8 ].

It is the development of insulin resistance, which is defined as the necessity of higher circulating insulin levels in order to produce a glucose lowering response, that is thought to be responsible for the development of type 2 diabetes [ 7 ].

In order to promote regulation of glucose homeostasis, insulin works primarily on receptors in skeletal muscle, liver, and white adipose tissue [ 7 ].

In short, there are several proposed mechanisms regarding the development of insulin resistance. One of the more prominent theories describes the association of increased adiposity and the subsequent chronic inflammation that leads to the development of insulin resistance in tissues [ 7 ].

Intermittent fasting, as described previously, may reduce adiposity and subsequently insulin resistance via reduction of caloric intake as well as due to metabolic reprogramming.

The role of AMPK at a biochemical level is outside of the scope of this review, however activation of AMPK through a low energy state has been shown to initiate physiologic responses that promote healthy aging [ 37 ].

Increased levels of insulin, whether through increased energy intake casting insulin resistance, leads to the activation of downstream mediators that ultimately inhibit AMPK. The role of AMPK in improved insulin sensitivity is most evident via the positive effects of the commonly prescribed biguanide, metformin.

Metformin is known to promote the activation of AMPK, and has been shown to be very effective in the treatment of type 2 diabetes as well as in the mitigation of a number of chronic disease states [ 37 ]. In theory, decreased energy intake, such as that is achieved through intermittent fasting, insilin lead to prolonged decreased levels of insulin production and increased levels of AMPK, which likely plays a role in the improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.

Several studies have shown promise for the use of intermittent fasting protocols as a potential treatment for diabetes. Tables 1 and 2 illustrate the findings of several recent studies regarding intermittent fasting and its effect on measures including body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, adiponectin, and leptin.

In a systematic review and meta-analysis by Cho et al. Lastly, when comparing leptin and Alternate-ady levels between the intermittent fasting subjects and the control subjects in all studies, the reviewers found increased adiponectin levels A case series by Furmli et al.

Over the course of the study, all patients had significant reductions in HbA1C, weight loss, and all of the patients were able to stop their insulin therapy within 1 month [ 26 ]. Interestingly, the three patients in this case series all reported tolerating fasting very well, and no patient stopped the intervention at any point out of choice [ 26 ].

This suggests that intermittent fasting may not only be successful as a non-medicinal treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes, but supports the notion that this intervention is tolerable as Altsrnate-day. Carter et al. Finally, a similar clinical trial by Gabel et al.

HOMA-IR is a marker used to measure levels of insulin resistance. In America, we often eat 3 meals per day in addition to frequent snacking.

: Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity

Alternate-day fasting cuts insulin levels, resistance in half

You have tremendous latitude in what goes into your daily diet—and the choices you make can have profound consequences for your health.

But what diet should you choose? The range is truly dizzying. Just some of the diets you might encounter are vegan, pegan, and portfolio. Raw food, whole foods, and Whole Keto, carnivore, and paleo.

Clean eating and intermittent fasting. DASH, MIND, and Volumetrics. Mediterranean, Nordic, and Okinawan. What does it all mean? And how can you begin to make sense of it? This Special Health Report is here to help.

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Recent Blog Articles. Flowers, chocolates, organ donation — are you in? What is a tongue-tie? What parents need to know. Which migraine medications are most helpful?

How well do you score on brain health? Shining light on night blindness. Can watching sports be bad for your health? Beyond the usual suspects for healthy resolutions. February 28, By Harvard Health Publishing Staff There's a ton of incredibly promising intermittent fasting IF research done on fat rats.

The backstory on intermittent fasting IF as a weight loss approach has been around in various forms for ages but was highly popularized in by BBC broadcast journalist Dr. Intermittent fasting can help weight loss IF makes intuitive sense.

Intermittent fasting can be hard… but maybe it doesn't have to be Initial human studies that compared fasting every other day to eating less every day showed that both worked about equally for weight loss, though people struggled with the fasting days.

Why might changing timing help? So, is intermittent fasting as good as it sounds? Instead, eat fruits, vegetables, beans, lentils, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats a sensible, plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet.

Let your body burn fat between meals. Don't snack. Be active throughout your day. Build muscle tone. Consider a simple form of intermittent fasting. Limit the hours of the day when you eat, and for best effect, make it earlier in the day between 7 am to 3 pm, or even 10 am to 6 pm, but definitely not in the evening before bed.

Avoid snacking or eating at nighttime , all the time. Adapted from a Harvard Health Blog post by Monique Tello, MD, MPH Sources Effects of intermittent fasting on health, aging, and disease.

The Obesity Code , by Jason Fung, MD Greystone Books, About the Author. Harvard Health Publishing Staff Harvard Health Publishing HHP is the consumer health education division of Harvard Medical School HMS. Share This Page Share this page to Facebook Share this page to Twitter Share this page via Email.

Print This Page Click to Print. You might also be interested in…. The Diet Review: 39 popular nutrition and weight-loss plans and the science or lack of science behind them You have tremendous latitude in what goes into your daily diet—and the choices you make can have profound consequences for your health.

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Plus, get a FREE copy of the Best Diets for Cognitive Fitness. Sign me up. If left unchecked, fatty liver disease can lead to more serious complications like cirrhosis or liver failure, but there are limited drug options for treatment.

The researchers reported that over three months, people who exercised and followed alternate-day fasting—eating without restriction one day and eating calories or less the next—had increased insulin sensitivity and decreased liver fat, weight and other markers for liver disease.

The 80 study participants were divided into four groups: an alternate-day fasting group, an aerobic exercise group, a combined group and a control group who made no changes to their behaviors. The researchers also found that compared to other participants, the group who combined exercise and fasting experienced reduced body weight, fat mass and waist circumference.

The study, published in the journal Cell Metabolism, was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Co-authors include Mark Ezpeleta, KN assistant professor Kelsey Gabel , Sofia Cienfuegos, Faiza Kalam, Shuhao Lin, Vasiliki Pavlou, KN professor Zhenyuan Song , Jacob M.

Type 2 Diabetes and Fasting: What to Know | TIME That said, it can be a useful tool when used in a comprehensive diabetes management plan. Phenotypes of mouse diabetes and rat fatty due to mutations in the Ob Leptin receptor. ADF did not affect endothelium-independent vasorelaxation or PE-induced vasoconstriction in m Lepr db control mice Figure 2. These factors collectively raise the risk for serious health issues such as heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Protein tyrosine nitration is a post-translational modification that serves as a marker of oxidative stress.
Intermittent fasting: The positive news continues - Harvard Health

Fasting is evolutionarily embedded within our physiology, triggering several essential cellular functions. Flipping the switch from a fed to fasting state does more than help us burn calories and lose weight.

The researchers combed through dozens of animal and human studies to explain how simple fasting improves metabolism, lowers blood sugar levels; lessens inflammation, which improves a range of health issues from arthritic pain to asthma; and even helps clear out toxins and damaged cells, which lowers risk for cancer and enhances brain function.

According to metabolic expert Dr. Deborah Wexler, Director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Diabetes Center and associate professor at Harvard Medical School, says "there is evidence to suggest that the circadian rhythm fasting approach, where meals are restricted to an eight to hour period of the daytime, is effective.

So, here's the deal. There is some good scientific evidence suggesting that circadian rhythm fasting, when combined with a healthy diet and lifestyle, can be a particularly effective approach to weight loss, especially for people at risk for diabetes. However, people with advanced diabetes or who are on medications for diabetes, people with a history of eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia, and pregnant or breastfeeding women should not attempt intermittent fasting unless under the close supervision of a physician who can monitor them.

Adapted from a Harvard Health Blog post by Monique Tello, MD, MPH. Effects of intermittent fasting on health, aging, and disease. de Cabo R, Mattonson MP. New England Journal of Medicine , December Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Internal Medicine , May Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , January Intermittent fasting interventions for treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, February Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting. Annual Review of Nutrition , August Early Time-Restricted Feeding Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative Stress Even without Weight Loss in Men with Prediabetes.

Cell Metabolism , May As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

You have tremendous latitude in what goes into your daily diet—and the choices you make can have profound consequences for your health.

But what diet should you choose? The range is truly dizzying. Just some of the diets you might encounter are vegan, pegan, and portfolio. Raw food, whole foods, and Whole Keto, carnivore, and paleo. Clean eating and intermittent fasting. DASH, MIND, and Volumetrics. Mediterranean, Nordic, and Okinawan.

What does it all mean? And how can you begin to make sense of it? This Special Health Report is here to help. Thanks for visiting. Don't miss your FREE gift. The Best Diets for Cognitive Fitness , is yours absolutely FREE when you sign up to receive Health Alerts from Harvard Medical School.

Sign up to get tips for living a healthy lifestyle, with ways to fight inflammation and improve cognitive health , plus the latest advances in preventative medicine, diet and exercise , pain relief, blood pressure and cholesterol management, and more. Get helpful tips and guidance for everything from fighting inflammation to finding the best diets for weight loss from exercises to build a stronger core to advice on treating cataracts.

PLUS, the latest news on medical advances and breakthroughs from Harvard Medical School experts. Sign up now and get a FREE copy of the Best Diets for Cognitive Fitness. Stay on top of latest health news from Harvard Medical School. Recent Blog Articles.

Flowers, chocolates, organ donation — are you in? What is a tongue-tie? What parents need to know. Which migraine medications are most helpful? How well do you score on brain health? Shining light on night blindness. Can watching sports be bad for your health? Beyond the usual suspects for healthy resolutions.

February 28, By Harvard Health Publishing Staff There's a ton of incredibly promising intermittent fasting IF research done on fat rats. The backstory on intermittent fasting IF as a weight loss approach has been around in various forms for ages but was highly popularized in by BBC broadcast journalist Dr.

Intermittent fasting can help weight loss IF makes intuitive sense. Intermittent fasting can be hard… but maybe it doesn't have to be Initial human studies that compared fasting every other day to eating less every day showed that both worked about equally for weight loss, though people struggled with the fasting days.

Why might changing timing help? So, is intermittent fasting as good as it sounds? IMTG content in muscle after one double diet day and after 30 h fasting E. Representative images of Bodipy staining F. OB, Obese subjects, T2DM, patients with type 2 diabetes. In figure f, scale bars represent µm top and 25 µm bottom.

The expression of proteins relevant for insulin-mediated glucose metabolism is shown in Supplementary Figure S1A-I. Proteins involved in glucose transport GLUT4 and glycolysis hexokinase and pyruvate kinase and glycogen storage glycogen synthase and phosphorylase were similar between the two groups and did not change with ADF.

Proteins relevant for GLUT4 vesicle formation showed minor changes. Thus, Akt was significantly higher in OB compared with T2DM, and AMPKα1 increased significantly with ADF in OB, but not in T2DM.

AS and PKCθ remained unchanged and similar in the two groups. The expression of proteins relevant to lipid metabolism is shown in Supplementary Figure S1J-S. Proteins involved in fatty acids transport into muscle cells were studied by analysis of proteins located in the plasma membrane.

This was carried out to determine if alternate day fasting had any effect on fatty acid transport in healthy or diabetic skeletal muscle tissue. Fatty acid translocase FAT or CD36 binds long-chain fatty acids and is a key player in fatty acid transport across the plasma membrane.

Fatty acid transport protein 4 FATP4 esterifies long-chain fatty acids and has a role in fatty acid transport across the plasma membrane.

Plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein FABPpm is also involved in myocellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids. No change was observed in the T2DM group or between the two groups for all fatty acid transporters. Citrate synthase CS activity was used as an index for mitochondrial mass Larsen et al.

Oxygen consumption ex vivo was measured with a sequential substrate protocol, with state 2 respiration complex I; malate and glutamate followed by state 3 respiration with increasing concentrations of ADP complex I and dual electron input to complex I and II glutamate, malate, succinate, and ADP , ending with uncoupled respiration FCCP as protonophore Supplementary Figure S2A.

First of all, there were no differences in respiration between T2DM and OB, and no significant effect of ADF was observed Supplementary Figure S2A. Reactive oxygen species ROS displayed no difference between the groups and no effect of ADF was observed Supplementary Figure S2B.

ADP sensitivity and maximal oxygen flux Vmax was calculated from the oxygen flux during increasing ADP concentrations, and no differences between groups or effects of ADF were seen Supplementary Figures S2C, D.

The present study represents a comprehensive characterization of the effects of alternate-day fasting regimens on the human metabolism, studied in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The energy balance is essential in every attempt to lose bodyweight, and if weight loss is the primary focus it is fundamental to achieve a negative energy balance, no matter how this is brought about.

This was not the primary focus here. With the present study protocol, we aimed to study the metabolic effects of oscillations in energy intake and thus energy balance.

An improvement of the insulin secretory capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes is a therapeutic goal that is difficult to achieve non-pharmacologically, and only a few studies in patients with type 2 diabetes have reported improvements in β-cell secretion following physical training Krotkiewski et al.

The purpose of the present study was to mimic the oscillations that occur in energy stores with frequent exercise training, but at the same time avoid the physiological impact on metabolism that takes place with exercise training i. muscle contractions. ADF would largely accomplish this, but from previous studies, it is known that weight loss often follows ADF.

Therefore, we divided the study into two 3-week periods of ADF, where weight loss was allowed in the latter period, as would be the every day practice. The first-phase insulin response in the patients with type 2 diabetes was, however, not restored albeit the insulin response curve displayed a more marked first phase profile compared with baseline Figure 2C.

An indication that time-restricted feeding i. not the same protocol as used in the present study without weight loss may increase ß-cell responsiveness in pre-diabetic people has been published Sutton et al. The mechanism for improvements in insulin secretion has been attributed to a decrease in intrapancreatic triacylglycerol Lim et al.

This is also a likely explanation in the present study, where we observed large decreases in visceral fat Table 1 and intrahepatic triglyceride content Figure 4 where the latter correlated significantly with the improvement in insulin secretion.

The elevated plasma concentrations of FFA, glycerol, and β-hydroxybutyrate during fasting Table 2 testified to an increased lipolytic rate during fasting, contributing to the marked decrease of adipose tissue during the interventions Table 1.

An additional mechanism for the improvement in insulin secretion could also be due to an overall reduced glycemic load on the β-cells i. reduced glucotoxicity. Apart from documenting the adherence to the protocol, the continuous glucose monitoring Figure 3 revealed a lessened glycemic burden, which in itself reduces the stress on the β-cells.

It is important to note that the duration of type 2 diabetes, or at least the time since diagnosis, was short among the included patients 2. This means that the patients had a relatively well-preserved β-cell function, but of course, diminished compared with the obese subjects without type 2 diabetes Figure 2.

We have previously shown that patients with a high pre-operative β-cell function experience a superior outcome to gastric bypass surgery compared with those patients with the lowest pre-operative β-cell function Lund et al.

Most likely, patients with severely reduced insulin secretory capacity which can be easily estimated by a 6 min glucagon test Dela et al.

Many studies have shown positive effects of training on insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes Dela et al. For muscle glycogen Table 2 this aim was achieved, but the oscillations did not translate into an improvement of insulin-mediated glucose clearance with ADF alone, which is in contrast to earlier findings in young, healthy subjects Halberg et al.

However, the data are in line with findings in obese people, using a calculated index for insulin sensitivity S I from an intravenous glucose tolerance test Catenacci et al.

Insulin action at the hepatic level, i. inhibition of endogenous glucose Ra, did not change with ADF. This finding is in line with the lack of effect of ADF on peripheral insulin action. It may require an extended period of starvation 3—4 days before a reduction of insulin-induced suppression of hepatic glucose output is seen Fery et al.

This indicates a general improvement in hepatic function elicited by dietary regimen. The lack of increases in insulin sensitivity with ADF is in line with the general lack of increases in proteins relevant for skeletal muscle insulin action, e. GLUT4, hexokinase, glycogen synthase Supplementary Figure S1.

In rodents, a similar lack of change in hexokinase after intermittent fasting has been reported Real-Hohn et al. The amount of intramyocellular lipids is inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity Pan et al.

psoas major fit well with the lack of changes in insulin sensitivity. A similar amount of lipid content in the muscle in T2DM and OB has been shown before Hansen et al. The latter is in line with earlier findings that demonstrated that it requires prolonged fasting e. Lipolysis increases at the beginning of a fasting period here evidenced by increased FFA and glycerol after 30 h fasting; Table 2.

The more so, because the anti-lipolytic effect of insulin diminishes with fasting Jensen et al. Support for an ADF-induced triglyceride-lowering effect is found in low-calorie refeeding studies that demonstrated increased triglyceride turnover and removal efficiency Streja et al.

During the fasting days in the present ADF protocol, it would be reasonable to assume that a large part of the substrates for energy production comes from lipids. If not from intramuscular stores, of which a decrease could not be detected, then from extramyocellular stores, i.

adipose tissue. The amount of adipose tissue decreased Table 1 during the 6-week intervention, which in turn give rise to the increased availability of fatty acids Table 2 that facilitates an increased fatty acid transport across the sarcolemma.

To this end, we measured fatty acid translocase CD36 , fatty acids transport protein 4 FATP4 , and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein FABPpm which are important players in the transport of fatty acids across the plasma membrane.

A mixed result was seen, with CD36 increasing significantly in the OB group, FATP4 decreasing in T2DM, and decreasing in FABPpm main effect Supplementary Figure S1.

The changes were small, and the data cannot support the notion that fatty acid transport was increased. Most likely, the oscillation of carbohydrate and lipid substrates every other day blurred a potential marked increase in these proteins. Once inside the muscle cell, fatty acids can be stored as triglycerides and the final step in the synthesis is catalyzed by diglyceride acyltransferase 1 DGAT1.

DGAT1 protein expression did not change with the intervention Supplementary Figure S2M , but even though we did not detect a difference in lipid content between the two groups, DGAT1 was significantly higher expressed in T2DM compared with OB.

To our knowledge, DGAT1 protein expression in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes has only been measured in one other study, in which no change was found compared with obese people and athletes Bergman et al.

Our data suggest that T2DM have the capacity to synthesize greater amounts of intramuscular lipids. We measured two proteins involved in lipolysis adipose triglyceride lipase ATGL , monoacylglyceride lipase MGLL and in lipid storage Perilipin 2 adipophilin , perilipin 3 TIP47 , and perilipin 5 OXPAT and in line with the unchanged lipid content in the muscles Figure 5 we found no effect of the intervention on these proteins Supplementary Figure S1.

An increase in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase MCAD might have been seen because MCAD is involved in medium-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation, which would be expected to increase with increased fatty acid availability but not with increased lipid storage.

However, no change was detected Supplementary Figure S1. The expression of proteins involved in lipid transport, synthesis and storage presented here, are in line with data on gene expression mRNA of many of these proteins in a study on females undergoing an intermittent fasting regimen with the muscle biopsies obtained in the same condition i.

after an overnight h fast Liu et al. However, in that study Liu et al. Others have also found that CD36 mRNA remains unchanged with a zero-calorie ADF regimen Heilbronn et al.

Compared with minor caloric restriction, ADF over 6 months does not bring about superior health benefits in terms of body weight, body composition, or cardiovascular risk factors in patients with obesity Trepanowski et al. This difference in design as well as differences in study cohorts between the two studies makes a direct comparison difficult.

The second part of the present study, where ad libitum diet was allowed on feast days demonstrated that the study participants did not inadvertently compensate the overall caloric deficit, because body weight decreased faster in the latter part of the study.

If weight loss is the purpose of ADF, zero-calorie intake must therefore be recommended on fast days because it will not be compensated on feast days. The length of the fasting may also play a role. In the study by Trepanowski et al. Trepanowski et al.

Varady, personal communication , but since lunch was allowed between and on fasting days, the fasting period was, in fact, two periods of 12 and 10 h.

These relatively short periods of fasting every other day may therefore be the reason that this intervention was not superior in reducing body weight compared to ordinary everyday caloric restriction. In the present study, each zero-calorie fasting period was 30 h, which is of sufficient length to markedly draw from endogenous energy sources, introducing loss of body weight and also mimicking oscillations in energy stores induced by exercise Dela et al.

In line with previous studies for review see Dela et al. Dela and Helge, and newer studies Lund et al. In the present study, we tested ADP sensitivity of the skeletal muscle mitochondria Supplementary Figure S1 but found no difference between the groups or an effect of ADF.

Previously, in patients with type 2 diabetes, we have demonstrated increased sensitivity for complex I glutamate and complex II succinate substrates Larsen et al. This study has some limitations. We did not randomize patients to a non-intervention control group, because it is a well-known risk that patients assigned to passive control groups may exhibit behavioural changes, especially in studies with a focus on dietary behaviour.

Instead, we performed two baseline experiments that were carried out two to 3 weeks apart Figure 1 to account for any variation in methodology and to avoid a time effect of enrollment into a dietary study per se.

We did not include a group that performed conventional caloric restriction, thus we cannot make a direct comparison between ADF and conventional caloric restriction, and this was not the purpose here.

The intervention was well tolerated by all patients. The strict zero-calorie regimen is a quite demanding approach, but the reports from the participants were that the most difficult task was to eat the double diet on non-fasting days during the first 3 weeks.

However, a double diet every other day was only used for mechanistic reasons, and it is not the recommended approach for the general use of ADF. It should also be noted that oral medication, except antihypertensive drugs but including glucose lowering drugs, was discontinued during the entire intervention.

Yet, the patients with type 2 diabetes experienced an improvement in fasting glucose and even HbA1c. This suggests that shorter term 6 weeks ADF is a feasible approach in patients in treatment with oral glucose-lowering therapy that will bring about loss of weight and improved glycemic control.

Longer-term more than 6 weeks effects i. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by The Regional Ethics Committee H Conceptualization, FD, and AI; Methodology, FD, SL, CP. CH, and AI; Investigation, AI, FD, HH, MC, CJ, EN, SL, JH, EC, and CP; Writing—Original Draft, AI, and FD; Writing—Review and Editing, AI, FD, JH, SL, and CP; Funding Acquisition, FD.

The Danish Council for Independent Research grant no: B , Nordea Foundation grant to the Center for Healthy Aging. We thank the participants, and the technical assistance provided by R. Kraunsøe, J. Bach, and T. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Al-Mrabeh A. Hepatic lipoprotein export and remission of human type 2 diabetes after weight loss. Cell Metab. PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Arnason T. Effects of intermittent fasting on health markers in those with type 2 diabetes: A pilot study.

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JAMA Netw. Open 1 3 , e Catenacci V. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity. Silver Spring 24 9 , — Chabanova E. Dela F. Insulin resistance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Cell Biol.

Effects of one-legged High-intensity Interval Training on insulin-mediated skeletal muscle glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acta Physiol. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose clearance in patients with NIDDM. Effects of one-legged physical training.

Diabetes 44, — Physical training increases muscle GLUT-4 protein and mRNA in patients with NIDDM. Diabetes 43, — Effect of physical training on insulin secretion and action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients. Physical training may enhance beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes.

Dohlmann T. High-intensity interval training changes mitochondrial respiratory capacity differently in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Fery F. Mechanisms of starvation diabetes: A study with double tracer and indirect calorimetry.

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The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Sports 25 1 , e59—e Biomarkers of mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle of healthy young human subjects.

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Alternate-day fasting cuts insulin levels, resistance in half The Alternaet-day step, always, is Calorie counting strategies with your physician or care fasitng. Moreover, the impact Alternate-daay IF on individuals senxitivity obesity and metabolic syndrome presents a complex picture. Alternate-xay are shown as mean ± SD. The inflammatory effects of leptin are likely due to its role in the production of IL-6, which induces the synthesis of C-reactive protein in the liver as well as upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha [ 10 ]. Effect of alternate-day fasting on weight loss, weight maintenance, and cardioprotection among metabolically healthy obese adults: A randomized clinical trial.
Intermittent fasting: The positive news continues Ste Marie L, Palmiter RD. The relative amounts of protein expression were quantified to those of the corresponding m Lepr db control, which was set to a value of 1. Intermittent Fasting Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Insulin Secretion in Glucose-Tolerant People with Prediabetes. Louis, MO, United States. Twelve male patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes T2DM and eleven male patients with obesity OB aged 57 ± 6 and 55 ± 7 yrs mean ± SD , and BMI Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle gene expression in response to alternate day fasting.
In a new study faeting the effects of alternate-day Alternate-ay, nutrition researchers found that the Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity, combined with Liver health benefits, improved sensitiivity health Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity people with insulln Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity Altednate-day disease. If left unchecked, fatty liver disease can lead to more Leafy green cancer prevention complications insuulin cirrhosis or liver failure, but there are insukin drug options for treatment. The researchers reported that over three months, people who exercised and followed alternate-day fasting—eating without restriction one day and eating calories or less the next—had increased insulin sensitivity and decreased liver fat, weight and other markers for liver disease. The 80 study participants were divided into four groups: an alternate-day fasting group, an aerobic exercise group, a combined group and a control group who made no changes to their behaviors. The researchers also found that compared to other participants, the group who combined exercise and fasting experienced reduced body weight, fat mass and waist circumference. Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity

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Intermittent Fasting - How it Works? Animation

Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity -

Another study involving 64 obese subjects supported that a week period of ADF improved brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation Our experimental data strongly support the profound endothelial protective effects of ADF in mice modeling severe type 2 diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental study determining the role of ADF in diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction.

The above clinical studies in obese subjects and our experimental study in type 2 diabetic mice provide premises to further explore the clinical benefits of long-term ADF in diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications.

Our study has shed light on the mechanisms of the endothelial protective effects of ADF partly through enhanced circulating adiponectin. Adiponectin is well known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative roles in endothelial cells 43 and its protective effects against neointimal formation in response to vascular injury 44 and atherosclerosis Our previous work has also supported that adiponectin abates diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction by suppressing oxidative stress, adhesion molecules, and inflammation in type 2 diabetic mice Specifically, adenovirus-mediated adiponectin supplementation improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of aortas in Lepr db mice Adiponectin supplementation reduced aortic nitrotyrosine protein levels, via suppressing protein expression of gp91 phox , an NADPH oxidase subunit, and increasing protein expression of SOD3, an antioxidant enzyme Aortic expression of inflammatory genes, Tnf , Il6 , and Icam1 , was also suppressed by adiponectin supplementation These pathways are likely responsible for the endothelial protective and anti-oxidative effects of adiponectin in mesenteric arteries of Lepr db mice undergoing ADF.

The adiponectin-independent endothelial protective and anti-oxidative effects of ADF remain to be further dissected, and we speculate that the metabolic benefits of ADF may play important roles. Alternate day fasting exerts profound metabolic benefits in both control and diabetic mice with remarkably improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity.

The effects of ADF on weight loss and visceral adiposity were, however, modest. Consistent with our observation, an independent study also suggested that a week period of intermittent fasting, using a fasting mimicking diet protocol, improved glucose homeostasis in Lepr db mice without causing weight loss Thus, the metabolic benefits of ADF in Lepr db diabetic mice are likely not entirely dependent on weight loss effects.

Since the Lepr db mice resemble severe type 2 diabetes, whether ADF may also exert limited benefits in weight management in patients with type 2 diabetes, despite profound metabolic effects, should be studied clinically.

Further, the benefits of ADF in non-obese, healthy humans thus may also warrant further investigation. There are many questions that remain to be explored.

Future studies may further elucidate if the knockout of adiponectin abolishes the vascular protective effects of ADF, the involvement of other adipokines, and the molecular mechanisms by which ADF modulates adipokine expression and secretion.

Comparative studies are required to tackle how different intermittent fasting regimens affect metabolic, vascular, and hormonal parameters.

Findings generated from such studies could inform whether one regimen is superior to the others and elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the cardiometabolic benefits. The discovery of pharmacological agents mimicking fasting can potentially provide novel therapeutic strategies.

A potential limitation of the present studies is that they were performed only in male mice and mesenteric resistance arteries. In summary, our study examined the role and mechanisms of ADF in diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction using murine models of type 2 diabetes.

We have revealed that ADF in type 2 diabetic mice exerts profound endothelial protective effects, partly through modulating the adipose-derived hormone, adiponectin.

Thus, this study improves our understanding of how ADF affords significant protection against endothelial dysfunction partly by regulating adipose-derived hormones.

Our work also elaborated on the metabolic benefits and potential cardiovascular protective actions of ADF in the management of type 2 diabetes. The manuscript is in memory of Dr.

Cuihua Zhang, who was deceased on October 1, The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. The animal study was reviewed and approved by the Animal Care Committee at the University of Missouri Columbia, MO, United States.

JC, HZ, and CZ conceived the study. JC, SL, and HZ performed the experiments. JC and HZ analyzed the data. JC, YL, and HZ interpreted results of experiments and drafted the manuscript. JC, YS, and HZ prepared the tables and figures. JC, SL, YS, MH, YL, and HZ edited and revised the manuscript.

All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

ACh, acetylcholine; ADF, alternate-day fasting; MAT, mesenteric adipose tissue; NO, nitric oxide; PE, phenylephrine; SMA, small mesenteric artery; SNP, sodium nitroprusside.

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Keywords : adipose, adipokines, diabetes, diet, endothelial function, alternate day fasting, adiponectin. Citation: Cui J, Lee S, Sun Y, Zhang C, Hill MA, Li Y and Zhang H Alternate Day Fasting Improves Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetic Mice: Role of Adipose-Derived Hormones.

Received: 21 April ; Accepted: 02 May ; Published: 26 May Copyright © Cui, Lee, Sun, Zhang, Hill, Li and Zhang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY.

The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. cn ; Hanrui Zhang, hz cumc. Export citation EndNote Reference Manager Simple TEXT file BibTex.

Check for updates. ORIGINAL RESEARCH article. Introduction Obesity and diabetes are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which remain the leading cause of death globally 1.

Materials and Methods Animal Models and Treatment The procedures followed were in accordance with approved guidelines set by the Animal Care Committee at the University of Missouri Columbia, MO, United States.

Measurement of Body Weight and Abdominal Girth Body weight was determined using an electronic balance. Measurement of Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance Fasting blood glucose levels were measured by OneTouch Ultramini glucometer LifeScan. Insulin Tolerance Test Mice were fasted overnight and weighed.

Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer Adenovirus vector containing the gene for full-length mouse adiponectin Ad-APN was generously gifted by Dr. Functional Assessment of Small Mesenteric Arteries Mesenteric arteries first order of main branches with internal diameter of — μm were cut into 2 mm long rings and mounted in a Myograph M ADInstruments, Colorado Springs, CO, United States Determination of mRNA Expression by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Total RNA was extracted from 10 mg of mesenteric adipose tissue MAT using RNeasy Lipid Tissue Mini Kit Qiagen, Valencia, CA, United States 27 , Data Analysis All data were presented as mean ± SEM except as specifically stated.

Results The Effects of Alternate Day Fasting on Body Weight, Abdominal Girth, Fasting Total Cholesterol, Fasting Glucose, Fasting Insulin, and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance in Control and Diabetic Mice Mice on the ADF diet were allowed to eat ad libitum for one day, and then given no food the next day.

Table 1. Basic characteristics. M PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. C PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Keywords : adipose, adipokines, diabetes, diet, endothelial function, alternate day fasting, adiponectin Citation: Cui J, Lee S, Sun Y, Zhang C, Hill MA, Li Y and Zhang H Alternate Day Fasting Improves Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetic Mice: Role of Adipose-Derived Hormones.

Edited by: Xiaofeng Yang , Temple University, United States. Reviewed by: Hong S. Lu , University of Kentucky, United States Jingyan Han , Boston University, United States. This article is part of the Research Topic Insights in Cardiovascular Therapeutics: View all 10 Articles.

In the Obesity Code, Fung successfully combines plenty of research, his clinical experience, and sensible nutrition advice, and also addresses the socioeconomic forces conspiring to make us fat. He is very clear that we should eat more fruits and veggies, fiber, healthy protein, and fats, and avoid sugar, refined grains, processed foods, and for God's sake, stop snacking.

IF makes intuitive sense. The food we eat is broken down by enzymes in our gut and eventually ends up as molecules in our bloodstream. Carbohydrates, particularly sugars and refined grains think white flours and rice , are quickly broken down into sugar, which our cells use for energy. If our cells don't use it all, we store it in our fat cells as, well, fat.

But sugar can only enter our cells with insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas. Insulin brings sugar into the fat cells and keeps it there. Between meals, as long as we don't snack, our insulin levels will go down and our fat cells can then release their stored sugar, to be used as energy.

We lose weight if we let our insulin levels go down. The entire idea of IF is to allow the insulin levels to go down far enough and for long enough that we burn off our fat. Initial human studies that compared fasting every other day to eating less every day showed that both worked about equally for weight loss, though people struggled with the fasting days.

So, it's very reasonable to choose a reduced calorie plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet. But research suggests that not all IF approaches are the same, and some IF diets are indeed effective and sustainable, especially when combined with a nutritious plant-based diet.

Our metabolism has adapted to daytime food, nighttime sleep. Nighttime eating is well associated with a higher risk of obesity, as well as diabetes.

Based on this, researchers from the University of Alabama conducted a study with a small group of obese men with prediabetes. They compared a form of intermittent fasting called "early time-restricted feeding," where all meals were fit into an early eight-hour period of the day 7 am to 3 pm , or spread out over 12 hours between 7 am and 7 pm.

Both groups maintained their weight did not gain or lose but after five weeks, the eight-hours group had dramatically lower insulin levels and significantly improved insulin sensitivity, as well as significantly lower blood pressure. The best part? The eight-hours group also had significantly decreased appetite.

They weren't starving. Just changing the timing of meals, by eating earlier in the day and extending the overnight fast, significantly benefited metabolism even in people who didn't lose a single pound.

But why does simply changing the timing of our meals to allow for fasting make a difference in our body? An in-depth review of the science of IF recently published in New England Journal of Medicine sheds some light. Fasting is evolutionarily embedded within our physiology, triggering several essential cellular functions.

Flipping the switch from a fed to fasting state does more than help us burn calories and lose weight. The researchers combed through dozens of animal and human studies to explain how simple fasting improves metabolism, lowers blood sugar levels; lessens inflammation, which improves a range of health issues from arthritic pain to asthma; and even helps clear out toxins and damaged cells, which lowers risk for cancer and enhances brain function.

According to metabolic expert Dr. Deborah Wexler, Director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Diabetes Center and associate professor at Harvard Medical School, says "there is evidence to suggest that the circadian rhythm fasting approach, where meals are restricted to an eight to hour period of the daytime, is effective.

So, here's the deal. There is some good scientific evidence suggesting that circadian rhythm fasting, when combined with a healthy diet and lifestyle, can be a particularly effective approach to weight loss, especially for people at risk for diabetes.

However, people with advanced diabetes or who are on medications for diabetes, people with a history of eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia, and pregnant or breastfeeding women should not attempt intermittent fasting unless under the close supervision of a physician who can monitor them.

Adapted from a Harvard Health Blog post by Monique Tello, MD, MPH. Effects of intermittent fasting on health, aging, and disease. de Cabo R, Mattonson MP. New England Journal of Medicine , December Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Internal Medicine , May Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , January Intermittent fasting interventions for treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, February Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting. Annual Review of Nutrition , August Early Time-Restricted Feeding Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative Stress Even without Weight Loss in Men with Prediabetes.

Cell Metabolism , May As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

You have tremendous latitude in what goes into your daily diet—and the choices you make can have profound consequences for your health. But what diet should you choose? The range is truly dizzying. Just some of the diets you might encounter are vegan, pegan, and portfolio. Raw food, whole foods, and Whole Keto, carnivore, and paleo.

Clean eating and intermittent fasting. DASH, MIND, and Volumetrics. Mediterranean, Nordic, and Okinawan. What does it all mean? And how can you begin to make sense of it?

Alternate-day fasting sensitivigy oscillations in energy insuoin. We hypothesized that tasting oscillations increases Antibacterial face mask secretion Alternwte-day sensitivity, and improve metabolic health in patients with obesity with Bodyweight assessment without Alternate-day fasting and insulin sensitivity 2 diabetes T2DM. Twenty-three male patients fasted every other day for 30 h for 6 weeks. Experiments included resting energy expenditure, continuous glucose monitoring, intravenous glucose tolerance test, euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, body composition, hepatic triglyceride content, muscle biopsies which were performed at baseline, during 3 weeks without allowed weight loss, and after additional 3 weeks with weight loss. Only minor changes in fat mass occurred in weeks 1—3. Muscle lipid and glycogen content oscillated with the intervention.

Author: Banris

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