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Anti-cancer discoveries

Anti-cancer discoveries

Anti-cnacer technology is Anti-canceer novel approach for delivering chemotherapy Resveratrol and immune system into cancer cells. People have reported Resveratrol and immune system Anti-caancer when eating too Pomegranate Snacks turmeric. It includes the results from the preclinical studies done in the lab and in animals, the plans for clinical trials in people, and information about how the new drug is made. One of these in was an international laboratory study on bowel cancer cells.

Anti-cancer discoveries -

In keeping with a new-year tradition on the AACR blog , we asked a group of experts to discuss the state of the art in their fields of research and to share their predictions for the next significant developments in the year in immunotherapy, precision medicine, prevention and early detection, patient advocacy, and cancer health disparities.

AACR President-Elect Philip D. Greenberg, MD, FAACR , editor-in-chief of the AACR journal Cancer Immunology Research , professor and head of the Program in Immunology, Clinical Research Division, and the Rona Jaffe Foundation Endowed Chair at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, believes this is a time for optimism in cancer research.

In addition to increasingly effective and broadly used immunotherapies, Greenberg expects that multiple areas of research will expand dramatically in the coming year, including gene editing, epigenetics, structural biology for protein design, and medicinal chemistry, which is allowing researchers to target cancer proteins once considered undruggable.

Within the realm of cancer immunotherapy, Greenberg predicted an expansion in the use of combinations of agents that target independent cellular pathways and can work synergistically. The field of engineered cell therapies, he added, is progressing very rapidly.

The field is going to look very different in and Adoptive cell therapies, Greenberg pointed out, provide important advantages over other approaches.

Thanks to these advances, the adoptive cells are rendered able to thrive in a tumor environment where the natural immune response would not. Greenberg emphasized that these advances, coupled with improved selectivity toward tumor-specific targets, will have enormous impact on the development of effective adoptive cell therapies for solid tumors, which, so far, has been a challenge.

According to Greenberg, the use of multi-omic strategies, including spatial transcriptomics that provides a snapshot of how the cells interact in communities and neighborhoods within the larger tumor microenvironments at the single-cell level, is very instructive for the development of increasingly effective cell therapies.

Another area that Greenberg expects will advance in the new year is the development of drugs targeting inhibitory molecules in the tumor microenvironment.

Greenberg is also looking forward to advances in cancer vaccines that will overcome some of the challenges that still impact this approach and will bring it closer to clinical use.

Greenberg explained that getting the immune system to respond to these vaccines is challenging, because when they are given to patients, the tumor has already developed strategies to turn off or evade the immune response.

In this type of trials, Siu explained, clearance of ctDNA can be used as a surrogate endpoint in addition to long-term, traditional endpoints such as relapse-free survival and overall survival.

A second area experiencing rapid growth, Siu continued, is precision immuno-oncology. A session at the AACR Annual Meeting included several examples of the latest advances in precision immune-oncology.

Siu is also excited about the new generation of immune checkpoint inhibitor molecules, for example, the novel CTLA4 inhibitors modified to better target the myeloid component, and the field of immune-oncology IO combinations.

To better characterize the effect of the IO combinations, researchers are using technologies such as single-cell sequencing to learn more on the responses at the singe-cell level, and spatial transcriptomics to analyze the geographical relationships between multiple biomarkers on the same tissue sample and monitor the immune responses over time.

The first one is represented by antibody drug conjugates ADCs , which combine the target-specificity of monoclonal antibodies and the cancer-killing activity of cytotoxic drugs. In addition to the first-in-class KRAS G12C mutant inhibitor sotorasib Lumakras , which was approved in for advanced non—small cell lung cancer harboring the G12C mutation, more KRAS mutant-specific molecules are emerging.

Other mutant-specific molecules are advancing in their development path, including those targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase , fibroblast growth factor receptor, p53 , and MYC pathways.

According to Siu, we will likely see more emerge in the therapeutics arena. Lastly, Siu discussed the latest developments in clinical trial design, as well as the importance of patient engagement. The idea is to use immunotherapy to attack tumors when they are more likely to respond, Siu noted.

Siu emphasized that randomized trials will be needed to test the neoadjuvant therapy against the standard of care in terms of survival outcomes. Another critical development in clinical trial design relates to increasing patient engagement in all phases of the process.

She highlighted the importance of including patient-reported outcomes in the trial endpoints. This allows us to assess tolerance to the treatment, not just toxicity.

Ensuring equity and diversity is a highly relevant aspect of clinical research. We are in a decisive moment for cancer prevention, early detection, and interception, according to Timothy Rebbeck, PhD , member of the AACR Cancer Prevention Working Group Steering Committee, Vincent L.

Gregory Jr. Professor of Cancer Prevention, and director of the Zhu Family Center for Global Cancer Prevention at Harvard T. Chan School of Public Health and Dana Farber Cancer Institute. One area that he expects will take off in the coming year is that of multicancer detection MCD assays, which aim to detect signals of more than one type of cancer in early, more treatable stages and from a single blood sample through liquid biopsies.

Rebbeck foresees that early detection technologies are going to change the landscape of cancer as we know it. Although the results from this research will not be available for a few years, he explained, some of these tests are already commercially available and are being used in the clinic.

Rebbeck added that the cancer community will have to catch up to these fast developments to understand the medical and social implications of these tests and establish the care pathways required to achieve equitable benefit from a screening test to a diagnosis and treatment for all people.

Another exciting area of technological development for early cancer detection is molecular imaging, or the use of molecular biomarkers to visualize changes at the cellular level, such as metabolism or oxygen consumption by cells, before structural changes become apparent through more traditional imaging approaches.

Using nanotechnology strategies reminiscent of science fiction, researchers are also developing nanoprobes that might be ingested, injected, or even tattooed into the skin, to sense and signal the presence of cancer. He highlighted that risk stratification plays an important role in the success of the early detection strategies.

We also want to avoid over-diagnosis and over-intervention. In the past decade, researchers have gained a vast amount of knowledge about the genes that are involved in cancer susceptibility and have now developed models to predict what combinations of gene alterations confer risk for certain cancers.

I hope that, too, is on the horizon. One important caveat in the use of genomic risk scores is that they are not always transferable across populations and are often built based on data predominantly collected among people of European descent.

Rebbeck stressed the importance of increasing diversity in the study populations so that the discoveries are applicable to all and are translated in the most accurate way.

Overall, he added, many of the technologies and tools for cancer prevention, early detection, and even treatment can create or exacerbate disparities if they are not developed and implemented in a way that benefits everyone. One example is breast cancer. As Rebbeck pointed out, before the advent of mammography and adjuvant endocrine therapies, Black and white patients had comparable mortality rates.

In the past years, when these strategies became commonplace, breast cancer rates and mortality rates have dropped dramatically in white women but not in Black women. According to Rebbeck, that process should include education and cultural awareness about what different groups of people need, and what strategies they accept to lower their cancer risks.

Ellison Institute for Transformative Medicine, University of Southern California. For Barker, patient advocacy melds research with care. We asked her to discuss the main themes that will shape the landscape of patient advocacy in One area in which patients and advocates can make a difference for research, she explained, is in ensuring their tumor samples are collected, accurately characterized at the molecular level, and entered into an appropriate database.

Another domain of critical patient advocate involvement, Barker indicated, will be clinical trials. Barker emphasized the power of education and the importance of having a mutual learning system in place through which researchers and patient advocates can learn from each other.

They do their homework, and many are incorporating sophisticated molecular information into their education programs. In fact, many of the leaders of advocacy organizations, who often represent hundreds or even thousands of patient advocates, participate in scientific conferences and initiatives and bring the information they acquire back to their community.

For example, the topic of cancer survivorship is now part of the research and patient advocacy agendas, and Barker hopes that scientists will do their part in educating patients about the importance of monitoring for secondary cancers and long-term toxicity from treatment.

A larger cancer survivor population will also require some policy changes to ensure access to therapy for everyone and to lower the cost of treatment, especially for disadvantaged and underserved populations, including older patients who often have comorbidities.

Engaging patients and patient advocates from these disadvantaged communities is another key priority for the near future. She also highlighted that it will be important to engage the patient advocacy communities in other countries. According to Barker, patient advocates will play a critical role in the relatively new area of multicancer early detection.

Advances in immuno-oncology will likely dominate cancer disparities research next year, according to Melissa B. Davis, PhD , member of the AACR Minorities in Cancer Research Council, associate professor of cell and developmental biology research, and scientific director of the International Center for the Study of Breast Cancer Subtypes at Weill Cornell Medical College.

Similarly, the field is now delving into the role of ancestry in genomic diversity across populations. Artificial intelligence is also playing an increasingly important role, according to Davis, and will be applied to imaging, for histology and diagnostics, and to informatics data mining, related to the development of algorithms to identify genetic drivers of tumor biology.

Dissecting the intricate contribution of intrinsic biologic factors and external socioeconomic and environmental factors on cancer health disparities is a big challenge of our time.

This study was led by Prof Sarah Blagden and Dr Hagen Schwenzer , in partnership with NuCana via the Clinical Positioning Network : an Oxford Cancer service that partners commercial organisations with leading academics to clinical develop novel cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

ProTide technology was invented by NuCana's late Chief Scientific Officer, Professor Christopher McGuigan at Cardiff University. The clinical trial was led from the Oxford Early Phase Clinical Trials Unit, with additional recruitment in Edinburgh and Newcastle. NuCana® is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on significantly improving treatment outcomes for cancer patients by applying ProTideTM technology to transform some of the most widely prescribed chemotherapy agents, nucleoside analogues, into more effective and safer medicines.

While these conventional agents remain part of the standard of care for the treatment of many solid and haematological tumours, their efficacy is limited by cancer cell resistance mechanisms and they are often poorly tolerated.

Utilising their proprietary technology, NuCana are developing new medicines, ProTides, designed to overcome key cancer resistance mechanisms and generate much higher concentrations of anti-cancer metabolites in cancer cells.

Skip to main content. An image of the fungus Cordyceps sinensis. This fungus grows naturally on caterpillars at high altitudes in the Himalayas. Share This Tweet. Share on Facebook. Share on LinkedIn. Share on Reddit. Home News Anti-cancer drug derived from fungus shows promise in clinical trials.

Cancer Research. About this study This study was led by Prof Sarah Blagden and Dr Hagen Schwenzer , in partnership with NuCana via the Clinical Positioning Network : an Oxford Cancer service that partners commercial organisations with leading academics to clinical develop novel cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

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