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Nutritional periodization for runners

Nutritional periodization for runners

Your email address will not be published. Periodizationn Nutritional periodization for runners of Health And Human Ecology. Article PubMed Google Scholar Costill D, Saltin B. In long-distance ultra-marathons, the most common hydration plan is drinking according to an individualized schedule [ ]. Sections Sections.

Nutritional periodization for runners -

Energy intake can be reduced slightly if weight loss is a target, however a high carbohydrate intake should be the highest priority to ensure the body has all the fuel it needs to perform at its greatest aerobic capacity. Nutritional periodisation can also help to reach lifestyle or exercise goals by matching a daily training schedule.

Just as certain fuels can be prioritised at different times of the year, the diet can be modified to prioritise fat burning during low intensity periods of the day, or maximise carbohydrate availability for a higher intensity training session. If you want to know more about how nutritional periodisation can help you reach your lifestyle or exercise goals, contact an Accredited Practising Dietitian APD and book in for a personalised plan.

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Novartis Foundation Symposium, , — ; discussion , — PubMed ID: Londeree , B. The use of laboratory test results with long distance runners. Sports Medicine, 3 3 , — Marquet , L. Maughan , R. IOC consensus statement: Dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28 2 , — McMahon , N.

The effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on endurance exercise performance in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 47 4 , — Melin , A. Energy availability in athletics: Health, performance, and physique.

Montain , S. Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 73 4 , — Mooses , M.

Anthropometrics and body composition in East African runners: Potential impact on performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12 , — Morgan , D.

Physiological aspects of running economy. Mountjoy , M. International olympic committee IOC consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport RED-S : update. Onywera , V. Food and macronutrient intake of elite Kenyan distance runners.

International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 14 6 , — Peeling , P. Sports foods and dietary supplements for optimal function and performance enhancement in track-and-field athletes.

Poole , D. Critical power: An important fatigue threshold in exercise physiology. Metabolic and respiratory profile of the upper limit for prolonged exercise in man.

Ergonomics, 31 9 , — Potgieter , S. Caffeine improves triathlon performance: A field study in males and females. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28 3 , — Racinais , S.

Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49 18 , — Reale , R. Acute-weight-loss strategies for combat sports and applications to Olympic success.

Rehrer , N. Effects of dehydration on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal distress while running. Roberts , P. Creatine ingestion augments dietary carbohydrate mediated muscle glycogen supercompensation during the initial 24 h of recovery following prolonged exhaustive exercise in humans.

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Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances short but not longer duration running time-trial performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 4 , — Smith , J.

Fuel selection and cycling endurance performance with ingestion of [13C]glucose: Evidence for a carbohydrate dose response. Snipe , R. Carbohydrate and protein intake during exertional heat stress ameliorates intestinal epithelial injury and small intestine permeability.

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Nutrients, 10 10 , pii: E Spriet , L. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine. Sports Medicine, 44 Suppl. Stellingwerff , T. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 22 5 , — Case study: Body composition periodization in an olympic-level female middle-distance runner over a 9-year career.

A framework for periodized nutrition for athletics. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 1 — Systematic review: Carbohydrate supplementation on exercise performance or capacity of varying durations.

Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 39 , — Stevens , C. Menthol: A fresh ergogenic aid for athletic performance.

Sports Medicine, 47 6 , — Tan , R. Beetroot juice ingestion during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise attenuates progressive rise in O 2 uptake. Journal of Applied Physiology, 5 , — Thomas , D. American College of Sports Medicine joint position statement.

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Advances in Nutrition, 6 6 , — van Nieuwenhoven , M. The effect of two sports drinks and water on GI complaints and performance during an km run. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 26 4 , — van Rosendal , S.

Glycerol use in hyperhydration and rehydration: Scientific update. Medicine and Sport Science, 59 , — Williams , K. Relationship between distance running mechanics, running economy, and performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 63 , — Jeukendrup is with the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.

Jones is with the Department of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom. Mooses is with the Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia. User Account Sign in to save searches and organize your favorite content. Not registered?

Sign up My Content 0 Recently viewed 0 Save Entry. Recently viewed 0 Save Search. Human Kinetics. Previous Article Next Article. Contemporary Nutrition Strategies to Optimize Performance in Distance Runners and Race Walkers.

in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. Louise M. Burke Louise M. Burke Australian Institute of Sport Australian Catholic University Search for other papers by Louise M. Burke in Current site Google Scholar PubMed Close.

Asker E. Jeukendrup Asker E. Jeukendrup Loughborough University Search for other papers by Asker E. Jeukendrup in Current site Google Scholar PubMed Close.

Andrew M. Jones Andrew M. Jones University of Exeter Search for other papers by Andrew M. Jones in Current site Google Scholar PubMed Close.

Martin Mooses Martin Mooses University of Tartu Search for other papers by Martin Mooses in Current site Google Scholar PubMed Close. In Print: Volume Issue 2. Page Range: — Open access. Get Citation Alerts. Download PDF. Abstract Full Text PDF Author Notes. Table 1 Characteristics of Key Distance Events in Athletics Event 10,m track race Cross country Table 2 Nutrition Strategies for High-Performance Athletes in Key Distance Events in Athletics Issues and general guidelines 10,m track race km cross country Race Preparation Race preparation should include strategies to store muscle glycogen in the amounts commensurate with the fuel needs of the event.

However, the acute use of low-fiber diets is often observed in weight division sports Reale et al. Here, the athletes suddenly reduce their fiber consumption in the days before weigh-in, in the belief or experience that a reduction in bowel contents contributes a small but potentially valuable loss of body mass, with fewer disadvantages to the dietary preparation for competition than food restriction.

Burke, personal observations. Race Feeding: Fueling and Hydration Update Some distance events offer an opportunity for athletes to consume fluid and fuel during the race to address the physiological limitations of these factors Table 2.

Table 4 Summary of Caffeine Supplementation and Performance of Distance Events Overview see Burke, ; Southward et al. CHO vs. placebo vs. HR was significantly higher in caffeine trial, with a trend to lower RPE despite the faster running speed.

Potgieter et al. No difference in RPE despite faster time. Caffeine associated with greater blood lactate and cortisol concentrations.

Hanson et al. However, a greater increase in core temperature with higher caffeine dose suggests greater heat storage. Table 5 Summary of Nitrate Supplementation and Effect on Performance of Distance Events Overview for review, see Jones et al. De Castro et al.

For a lot of runners the race cycle will coincide with the build cycle as one will taper for a race, compete, and then return to build cycle workouts in preparation for the next race. However, the main goals during the race cycle are to improve race performance and times and also recover quickly to move on to the next workout or race.

Once a runner enters the competition cycle, intensity of training will remain high but training volume will likely decrease. Therefore nutrition goals are very similar to those in the build cycle and it is important to match energy intake with energy expenditure.

The same is true with nutrition. The work is done, we just need to follow our pre-race and race day nutrition plans and watch our nutrition training from the past cycles pay off.

There are a few things you can do nutritionally during this cycle that will have an impact on your performance. After a successful track season or a new marathon PR, it is time for some much needed rest and recovery.

Your body may need weeks of absolute rest with minimal running or working out after a long and intense race like the marathon or an Ironman, or even after many weeks of back-to-back track races. The transition cycle may last another weeks depending on the start of your next season.

It is important to let your body recover to avoid injury, or perhaps to heal an injury that occurred during an earlier cycle. At the same time, you want to try to maintain a base level of aerobic conditioning for when you are ready to transition back into the preparation cycle. Since the volume and intensity of training are lower at this time than during any other cycle, the biggest concern is unwanted weight gain.

If you do not decrease caloric intake to match your decrease in training, weight gain will likely occur. The end of a long and hopefully successful season is often a time of celebration. You deserve to treat yourself as much as you deserve a break from training.

Just remember to practice some judgment and moderation in your nutrition choices. The following are some basic guidelines for transition cycle nutrition:. If you had been restricting certain foods or food groups during training and racing, now would be a good time to reintroduce those foods to your diet.

Finally, as in the preparation cycle, try new foods and add some nutritional variety to your diet. Plus, get a breakdown of how many calories you need to eat including how many carbs, proteins and fats you should target to lose weight. Click here to get yours free.

Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals, 4 th ed. American Dietetic Association; Frankenfield, DC. Your team of expert coaches and fellow runners dedicated to helping you train smarter, stay healthy and run faster. We love running and want to spread our expertise and passion to inspire, motivate, and help you achieve your running goals.

If you took a class on nutrition, the very first thing you would learn is that there are three sources of calories: carbohydrates, fat, and.

I have been using athletic greens every single day for just over a year now and today I want to share with you both my. Am I a healthy weight and should I not worry about trying to lose?

Before I saw this I was eating anywhere between to calories a day.

Periodization is Nutritiional long-term, ;eriodization approach fir Nutritional periodization for runners designed to Mental health tips for anxiety athletic performance by systematically Nutritiomal training flr the year. The ultimate goal of training periodization is to achieve Nutritional periodization for runners performance at the most important time in Nutritional periodization for runners season. Periodizatiom could Periodizatio a goal half marathon, the Boston Marathonor Mindful eating for cravings the Olympic Trials. To achieve that goal, a typical training year for a runner can usually be broken down into four cycles: the preparation cycle, the build cycle, the race cycle, and the transition cycle. While coaches may call these cycle different names, a constant fact is that each cycle has a different physiologic goal and thus the training will vary in volume, intensity, and specificity depending on the cycle. In this article I will describe the physical training load a typical runner would face in each cycle of training and I will also give guidelines on how to match nutrition periodization with that training in order to get the most out of your season. The first cycle of a new training season is usually the preparation cycle.

Nutritional periodization for runners -

Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition volume 16 , Article number: 50 Cite this article. Metrics details. In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition ISSN provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon.

Recommendations for Training. i Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-to-high carbohydrate diet i.

To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes mainly sodium may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products i. Ultra-marathons are footraces that exceed the traditional marathon distance of Ultra-marathons are contested the world over, often in remote locations, on a variety of terrains, and in extremes of temperature and altitude.

Nutrition is a critical component of the preparation phase and might influence the physiological adaptations to training via several means. Conversely, exercising while chronically glycogen-depleted increases circulating stress hormones e.

Chronically, this can cause changes in vasopressin and markers of metabolic dysfunction or disease [ 8 ]. With respect to racing, runners must endure numerous physiological stresses e. Moreover, offsetting dehydration can help slow the degradation of exercise [ 10 ] and cognitive performance [ 11 ] that is associated with a loss of body water.

Long-duration exercise is also associated with a generalized inflammatory state, often characterized by immunosuppression, which can be partly assuaged by a well-balanced diet that provides the athlete with sufficient macro- and micronutrients [ 12 ]. Accordingly, by implementing nutritional strategies that are congruent with the physical stresses of training and racing, it may be possible to simultaneously optimize training adaptations, maximize race performance, and mitigate the negative consequences of race participation.

Importantly, although ultra-endurance athletes have a reasonable knowledge of nutrition, they tend to favour the insights of other athletes over qualified nutrition experts [ 21 ]. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to provide an accessible, evidence-based Position Stand on the nutritional considerations of ultra-marathon training and racing to inform best-practice of athletes, coaches, medics, support staff, and race organizers.

This is particularly pertinent given the increased participation in ultra-marathon racing across the globe, and the ever-expanding extremes of race demands.

This Position Stand is concerned primarily with the nutritional considerations for single-stage ultra-marathon training and racing. Articles were searched via three online databases Pubmed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar , and the main search-terms comprised various combinations of the following: extreme-endurance, hydration, marathon, nutrition various terms , pathophysiology, physiology, supplements various terms , ultra-marathon, and ultra-endurance.

The reference-lists of those articles selected for inclusion were manually searched for additional literature. The data informing our recommendations are incomplete, particularly relative to other sports, for several reasons.

Firstly, despite the growing popularity of ultra-marathon, participant numbers are still relatively low. Secondly, ultra-marathons are often contested in remote locations and environmental extremes which do not lend themselves to complex or invasive data-collection protocols, especially when requiring equipment that is difficult to transport.

For this review, therefore, the decision was made to include all published studies that were relevant to the topic, irrespective of any methodological concerns that may have arisen e. We have, nevertheless, been clear with respect to methodological limitations of the studies included.

Furthermore, we have graded the strength of our evidence statements according to the system employed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute NHLBI [ 22 ] , which we have adapted to incorporate a fourth level pertinent to case-reports.

The system in question has also been used by other nutrition-related reviews [ 23 ]. Table 1 is a summary of the grading system and evidence categories.

The foremost nutritional challenge facing the ultra-marathon runner is meeting the daily caloric demands necessary to optimize recovery and permit prolonged and repeated training sessions [ 24 ]. From a metabolic perspective, ultra-marathon racing places a heavy dependence on oxidative metabolism to utilize glycogen and fat stores efficiently; moreover, with increasing race distance, there is a substantial increase in the use of free fatty acids as fuel [ 25 ].

Therefore, a central aim of any periodized ultra-marathon training program should be to maximize capacity for fat metabolism, thereby sparing muscle glycogen for the latter stages of competition. Given that training volume and intensity will vary throughout the season, the energy and macronutrient intake must be periodized to accommodate variable training loads.

Careful consideration of the weekly requirements of both training and recovery is recommended to achieve energy balance, unless there is an individual goal of weight loss or gain.

In addition, when nutritional intake cannot be matched e. When expressed relative to body mass, ultra-marathon runners undertaking frequent bouts of intense training e. With respect to macronutrient breakdown, Table 3 provides estimated daily requirements for individuals completing training runs at However, for athletes with greater caloric requirements, relative protein intakes up to 2.

Unless strategically targeting a ketogenic approach, fat intakes ranging from 1. The aim of ultra-marathon training should be to maximize fat metabolism in order to preserve muscle glycogen; therefore, nutrition strategies that promote or optimize fat oxidation should be prioritized.

Pre-exercise CHO intake also facilitates the uptake of blood glucose into muscle, and suppresses hepatic liver glycogenolysis [ 37 ], which may increase the potential risk of hypoglycaemia during the early period of a training session in susceptible individuals [ 38 ], although any negative impact of this on short-duration exercise performance has been refuted [ 39 ].

Others have reported hypoglycaemia-like symptoms during exercise that follows CHO intake [ 40 ] which may negatively impact athlete effort perceptions. Collectively, these data support the notion that athletes should aim to commence training in a euglycemic state [ 41 ].

These daily intakes are deemed necessary to restore muscle and liver glycogen, satisfy the metabolic needs of the muscles and central nervous system, and ensure CHO availability for days of successive training.

Nevertheless, a joint proposition from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine [ 42 ] suggested that:. The notion of train-low, compete-high is based on insights from cellular biology suggesting that careful manipulation of glycogen via dietary CHO restriction can serve as a regulator of metabolic cell-signalling, which can optimize substrate efficiency and endurance adaptations [ 5 ].

This may be particularly beneficial in the early stages of a training regimen, thereby allowing sufficient time for adaptations to occur. Periodically training with low muscle glycogen is associated with the activation of signalling pathways, including AMPK, which play a crucial role in mitochondrial biogenesis.

Importantly, this regulates key transporter proteins including glucose transporter-4 GLUT-4 and the monocarboxylate transporters, both of which mediate endurance performance for review, see [ 5 ].

Chronic training with lowered but not depleted glycogen stores can result in adaptations that, following glycogen resynthesis, increase total work and time to exhaustion during exercise [ 43 ].

The above-mentioned strategy has been scarcely studied in relation to ultra-marathon training and should, therefore, be practiced tentatively.

Indeed, safe implementation requires nutrition-specific knowledge, an understanding of training periodization, and a degree of experience and self-awareness on behalf of the athlete with respect to their requirements.

As such, athletes are cautioned against training in a chronically depleted state especially during intensive training periods, or when repeated days of prolonged training are scheduled as this may lead to low energy availability and, ultimately, relative energy deficiency RED-S [ 46 ];.

A further consideration is that high-intensity performance will likely be compromised by low glycogen availability, due to a relative inability to sustain a high work rate [ 45 ]. The practice of periodic CHO moderation should, therefore, be preferred to restriction.

Another approach in modifying macronutrient intake to shift metabolic flexibility in favor of fat oxidation is the use of ketogenic diets.

These have traditionally involved dramatic alterations in dietary fat utilizing a fat:protein or fat:carbohydrate ratio. The term keto-adapted has been used to denote a metabolic shift towards efficient use of ketone bodies. While debate exists, keto-adaptation may take several weeks or months, indicating that sustained tolerance to high-fat intake may be necessary in order that the individual acquire the full benefits.

Various ketogenic strategies have been studied e. However, the subsequent impact of this change in substrate efficiency on exercise performance is unclear. Accordingly, a strict ketogenic diet may not be necessary to promote fat oxidation in ultra-marathon runners.

Notwithstanding the available research which indicates a degree of benefit, ketogenic diets have been associated with acute negative symptoms, including: fatigue, headaches, poor concentration, lethargy, GI discomfort, nausea, and weight loss. All such symptoms may have consequences for training, particularly when resulting in immunosuppression and decreases in lean mass.

Furthermore, it is plausible that runners training in a glycogen-depleted state, and who are insufficiently keto-adapted , may become acutely catabolic. It should also be noted that significant increases in fat intake are often congruent with decreased intake of fiber and micronutrients specifically, iron, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants [ 51 ].

Previous studies into sustained ultra-endurance exercise have highlighted concerns with decreased intakes of some micronutrients magnesium and B-vitamins [ 52 , 53 ] and, as such, a mineral-rich approach involving plant-based foods and wholegrains should be incorporated into the overall nutrition strategy to support broader training requirements.

Finally, available data support the contention that while ketogenic approaches may enhance fuel utilization to favor fat oxidation, the ability to perform at higher intensities may be compromised, or even reduced, due to downregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase [ 54 ], leading to reduced oxygen economy [ 55 ].

Despite positive anecdotal reports from ultra-marathon runners, there is insufficient literature to support the notion that sustained ketogenic diets are beneficial for performance, and caution is urged if following such a practice, especially when considering the influence of in-task CHO intake on substrate use during exercise.

Strategically moderating CHO intake can facilitate metabolic adaptations associated with enhanced endurance performance. However, caution is advised against training chronically glycogen depleted, particularly during periods of repeated high-intensity exercise or prior to racing.

Despite the use of ketogenic diets to facilitate a rapid metabolic shift towards greater fat oxidation, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of such diets in ultra-marathon training, and further research is warranted.

Moreover, nitrogen balance can remain below baseline for several days following unaccustomed exercise [ 57 ]. The substantial training distances of ultra-marathon are associated with high levels of mechanical stress.

This is reinforced by empirical data showing that whole-blood markers of muscle breakdown e. The environmental terrain typical of ultra-marathon also deserves consideration in the training program. Downhill running on mountainous or undulating paths is associated with greater peak flexion angles relative to level or uphill running; this exaggerates the eccentric component of impact-loading, thereby increasing muscle damage [ 56 ].

Indeed, muscle damage resulting from a single bout of downhill running can result in a shortened stride-length in subsequent efforts [ 61 ], and this may be pertinent for runners training on consecutive days.

As such, although prior conditioning of the musculoskeletal system is critical for successful participation in ultra-marathon, participants should be mindful of nutritional strategies which may mitigate muscle damage and the associated inflammation during the training period.

Satisfying metabolic demand for protein is, therefore, a prerequisite for both recovery and general health. Contemporary guidelines for athletes engaged in chronic endurance training suggest dietary protein in the amount of 1. Current evidence indicates that protein intakes of less than 1.

Furthermore, amounts exceeding 2. This may, in turn, necessitate slightly higher intakes [ 64 ]. Runners should also be mindful that protein needs may be higher in older adults [ 67 , 68 ]. During chronic training, protein ingested before sleep appears to be an effective strategy to increase muscle protein synthesis overnight for review, see [ 70 ].

Ultra-marathon runners who struggle to meet their protein needs through dietary means might choose to supplement, perhaps using whey protein due to its high bioavailability and complete amino acid profile [ 63 ]. The branched-chain amino acids BCAAs have been the focus of study for many years.

An acute bout of prolonged exercise increases the rate of BCAA oxidation in skeletal muscle [ 71 ], suggesting that demands in ultra-marathon runners may be greater, but chronic training significantly attenuates the absolute rate of BCAA oxidation during exercise [ 71 ].

Therefore, the primary utility of BCAAs may be in muscle recovery and immune regulation during periods of hard training and racing [ 72 , 73 ], particularly when consumed in the post-absorptive state [ 74 ]. Although meeting absolute protein demand is critical for the ultra-marathon runner, the literature suggests that L-leucine may support the upregulation of muscle protein synthesis, influencing mRNA translation and the mTOR cell-signalling pathway [ 75 ].

Intakes of up to 2. A typical training session for the ultra-marathon runner appears sufficient to cause substantial dehydration.

Over the half-marathon distance Over longer training distances marathon , high-level runners exhibited a body weight loss of 0. Furthermore, abstaining from fluid resulted in an average dehydration of 3.

Notwithstanding the commonly-reported effects of mild dehydration on subsequent exercise performance, chronic dehydration can influence health outcomes, with several authors noting dehydration-mediated changes in vasopressin, and markers of metabolic dysfunction or disease [ 8 ].

To mitigate carry-over effects from one session to the next, and to maintain general health, there are two components of hydration that warrant consideration in the periodized nutrition program: 1 hydration strategies to facilitate post-exercise recovery; and 2 day-to-day hydration requirements that are independent of training.

When recovery time is short, or the extent of fluid loss is great, thirst-driven fluid intake is not adequate to restore water balance [ 79 ]. Targeted fluid replacement strategies are, therefore, critical to maximize recovery before a subsequent session. It stands to reason that runners should replenish the fluid volume lost in training; this can be estimated via pre- to post-exercise body mass weighing.

However, even in a hypohydrated state, the obligatory excretion of metabolic waste products allows for continued fluid losses [ 80 ]. Consequently, a fluid volume greater than that lost in training is necessary to fully restore water balance.

This notion has been demonstrated empirically by both Shirreffs et al. As these data indicate, plain water is not likely sufficient to restore fluid balance following training due to the consequent decrease in plasma sodium concentration and osmolality [ 82 ] causing diuresis.

Unequivocally, post-exercise urine output decreases as the drink sodium concentration increases; sodium intake should, therefore, ideally equal the concentration of sodium lost in sweat.

There is little research on the suggested rate of fluid intake, but the available data indicate that slow consumption i. The actual fluid intake necessary to attain euhydration on a day-to-day basis will vary with renal and extrarenal water losses [ 85 ]; moreover, the absolute daily fluid intake from food and drink will vary widely among individuals.

There are also daily fluctuations in total body water, estimated by Cheuvront et al. Interestingly, using biochemical measures of blood and urine, average plasma osmolality was found to be similar between groups of low-volume 1.

Indeed, elite Kenyan endurance runners have been shown to exhibit a euhydrated state when consuming fluid ad-libitum [ 87 ]. Moreover, given the sensitivity and reliability of the human thirst sensation to denote dehydration [ 79 ], it is reasonable to suggest that drinking-to-thirst is appropriate for responding to daily hydration needs.

There are individuals with relatively high plasma osmolality thresholds for thirst [ 88 ], which can lead to chronic deviations from a euhydrated state. Accordingly, the thirst sensation may only be appropriate in instances of acute dehydration. For the ultra-marathon runner, hydration monitoring strategies are recommended see Hydration monitoring strategies.

In addition, overuse of fluids that contain insufficient concentrations of electrolytes e. Although direct measures such as urine osmolality are rarely practical for most individuals, there are several simple and accessible tools that can be used to estimate hydration status.

The urine color chart is the most common means of estimating hydration status in runners [ 90 ]. The Venn diagram proposed by Cheuvront and Sawka [ 91 ] is a more sophisticated tool appropriate for healthy, active, low-risk populations which estimates hydration status by combining measures of nude body mass, thirst perception, and urine color.

General day-to-day hydration can, in most instances, be achieved by following a drink-to-thirst ad libitum strategy. To inform post-training rehydration strategies, athletes should measure pre- to post-exercise body mass losses, and monitor their hydration status. Given the durations typical of ultra-marathon, it is not feasible to meet caloric demands in their entirety.

Several scenarios can be examined to reinforce this hypothesis. When offset against the energy intakes observed in a typical ultra-marathon, runners are likely to exhibit a net calorie loss [ 92 ].

Accordingly, in addition to implementing an in-race nutrition strategy, an effort should be made to minimize caloric deficits before and after the race, and should be considered part of the overall holistic approach.

Indeed, CHO availability for racing can be maximized by adhering to a contemporary loading strategy i. Field studies indicate that successful completion of ultra-marathon is generally associated with greater energy and fluid intake [ 14 , 15 ], even when accounting for variations in performance time [ 15 ].

Consequently, relative to shorter races contested at a higher intensity, ultra-marathon runners can usually accommodate greater energy intake and more calorie-dense foods to the level of individual tolerance [ 94 ].

There is variability with respect to the absolute rate of energy intake reported during racing, but a sensible range can be determined. These findings have been reported elsewhere under similar race conditions [ 92 ]. Greater caloric intakes may, therefore, be necessary for longer races to enable performance.

Where GI distress is an issue, transient reductions in energy intake to the lower-end of this range are reasonable, congruent with a reduction in race pace. This may be particularly pertinent in the latter stages of a race in order to minimize the risk of hypoglycaemia which can result in race non-completion, and reinforces the importance of progressive gut training during the preparation phase [ 97 ].

The mechanistic link between glycogen depletion in skeletal muscle and liver, and a subsequent early-onset fatigue during prolonged exercise was made in the s [ 98 ].

In addition to negatively impacting endurance performance, the reduction in plasma glucose concentration that follows glycogen depletion is associated with acute cognitive decline; this, in turn, can compromise athlete safety on ultra-marathon courses of technical terrain or those requiring navigation.

Nevertheless, the absolute CHO requirements for ultra-marathon racing are unclear. There is certainly a lower rate of CHO utilization during ultra-marathon relative to marathon. Laboratory data demonstrate that respiratory exchange ratio RER gradually decreases until the 8th hour of a 24 h treadmill run, and plateaus thereafter, reflecting a reduced rate of energy derived from CHO; moreover, this is congruent with a diminished running velocity [ 99 ].

As muscle glycogen diminishes, there is a compensatory increase in fat oxidation, with rates of 0. The prolonged durations and slower relative running speeds that characterize ultra-marathon appear, therefore, to permit increased rates of fat oxidation for adenosine triphosphate ATP re-synthesis [ ].

However, there is still a risk of glycogen depletion during ultra-marathon if work rate is too high, or if nutrition is poorly managed. Worthy of note is that extremes of both temperature and altitude will increase the absolute rate of CHO oxidation during exercise [ ], and the nutrition strategy should accommodate these variations.

With respect to the absolute amounts of CHO and fats to be consumed during ultra-marathon, individual strategies vary greatly. Over the same distance, others report greater CHO intakes of When expressed relative to body-mass, finishers consumed nearly double the amount of CHO than non-finishers 0.

Moreover, this rate of ingestion may lead to nutrient malabsorption and GI distress [ ]. With increasing race distance, a greater proportion of calories from exogenous fat may be critical for success [ 95 ].

Throughout a mile race, finishers consumed a total of Collectively, these data suggest that successful completion of ultra-marathon likely requires a higher degree of tolerance to both CHO and fat intake either as solids or fluids.

Foods with a greater fat content are advantageous during racing in terms of caloric provision per unit of weight, and this is pertinent for minimizing pack weight when running self-sufficient. Moreover, foods with a greater fat content see Table 4 often contain more sodium, which may help mitigate the risk of exercise-associated hyponatraemia.

Gastrointestinal distress and a lack of appetite in non-finishers may explain their lower overall intake. Protein is likely an important component for prolonged endurance exercise because of the substantial proteolysis and muscle damage that can manifest before the conclusion of a race.

In controlled studies, however, there are conflicting results. By contrast, when ultra-marathon runners were supplemented with Irrespective, nutrition strategies should be implemented that mitigate the consequences of prolonged protein abstinence, and a balance of macronutrients should be consumed.

A degree of self-sufficiency when racing may provide an opportunity for runners to follow a more bespoke nutrition strategy to better satisfy individual protein needs see Table 4 for example foods.

Runners who are concerned that consuming calories from protein might compromise energy availability i. Another means by which amino acid supplementation might provide an advantage during ultra-marathon racing is in offsetting central fatigue.

Prolonged exercise increases the synthesis and metabolism of 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT; serotonin in the brain, which is associated with lethargy, drowsiness, and reduced motivation [ ].

Critically, tryptophan the 5-HT precursor competes with BCAAs to cross the blood-brain barrier [ ], with the hypothesis that increasing the circulating concentrations of BCAAs might mitigate 5-HT accumulation, attenuate the seretonin:dopamine ratio [ ], and potentially offset central fatigue.

Indeed, athletes showed reduced effort perceptions when BCAAs were supplemented during submaximal cycle exercise performed in a glycogen-depleted state [ ]. Moreover, when trained cyclists undertook several hours of exercise in the heat to exacerbate the central component of fatigue, BCAA supplementation prolonged time to exhaustion [ ].

It is feasible that the role of BCAAs in offsetting central fatigue may be further pronounced during the extreme-distance ultra-marathons, the conditions of which are rarely replicated, and difficult to perform reliably, in a laboratory environment.

The effect of BCAAs on central fatigue is far from certain, and further studies specific to ultra-marathon running are needed to elucidate the mechanisms that might underpin any beneficial effects.

A key consideration for the ultra-marathon runner should be the palatability of food and fluid , particularly in longer races. Moreover, tastes and food preferences will likely change throughout the course of the race [ ].

In the aforementioned studies, runners tended to exhibit a penchant for savory food i. An important consideration is to what extent one must rely on food provided by organizers at pre-determined checkpoints, given that the nature of such food is unpredictable and may be in limited supply. Accordingly, it is recommended that runners anticipate food availability, and carry their own food to more accurately fulfil their individual needs.

Finally, race organizers are encouraged to provide a variety of foods at checkpoints including a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; see Table 4 , and to publish in advance the list of foods to be served at feed-stations, so as to aid athletes in their race preparation.

This will break the monotony associated with repetitive feed stations, and afford the runner an opportunity to mitigate caloric deficits that will likely accumulate. As race duration increases, runners tend to favor savory foods, likely reflecting energy and electrolyte insufficiencies.

Thermoregulation during exercise is largely dependent on the mammalian sweat response to evoke evaporative heat loss. Insufficient fluid replacement, therefore, results in a net loss of body water, the main consequence of which is dehydration-induced cardiovascular drift; i.

The result is a diminished exercise capacity [ ], and an increased risk of heat illness and rhabdomyolysis [ ]. Dehydration may also diminish cognitive performance [ 11 , ] and increase perceived exertion [ ].

Moreover, consideration should be given to whether hot ambient conditions are dry or wet since the latter will compromise evaporative heat loss, increase fluid requirements, and increase the risk of heat illness.

Moreover, this strategy is considered the most appropriate method of minimizing the risk of hypo- or hyper-hydration during ultra-marathon [ 16 ].

However, given that most athletes choose to consume electrolyte formulas by ingesting fluids, drinking-to-thirst may result in the under-consumption of sodium and other vital electrolytes. In long-distance ultra-marathons, the most common hydration plan is drinking according to an individualized schedule [ ].

Moreover, finishers tend to consume fluid at a greater rate than non-finishers [ 92 ]. Collectively, the available data suggest that there are broad individual intakes among ultra-marathon runners, but that successful runners tend to meet the lower-limits of recommended values.

Fluid ingestion that results in diluted plasma sodium may be indicative that runners are not meeting their sodium needs [ 92 ]. Over-hydration, and the consequent dilution of plasma sodium, can have severe adverse effects on health see Exercise-associated hyponatraemia , and there are case-reports of water intoxication in runners who aggressively rehydrate [ ].

Individuals wishing to optimize performance should determine their individual sweat rates, in advance, under conditions which resemble competition i. An accessible means of estimating sweat rate is to measure nude body mass pre- and post-exercise; this will allow for an individualized fluid ingestion strategy.

Sodium is the major ion of the extracellular fluid and contributes to the generation of action potentials for muscle contraction, but it also has an important role in fluid retention [ ].

Modest symptoms include headache, fatigue, and nausea, but can result in seizures and death in severe cases [ 9 ]. Two key, interrelated mechanisms are responsible for hyponatraemia: i excessive sodium loss from the extracellular fluid resulting from a high sweat rate e.

Although the condition is rare, and individual susceptibility plays a role in prevalence, the earliest reported cases were observed in ultra-marathon runners and Ironman triathletes [ 9 ] i. Slightly greater amounts of sodium and other electrolytes will be required in hot e. Indeed, there is anecdotal evidence that effervescent dissolvable electrolyte tablets, and liquid electrolytes added to water, can compromise drink palatability, particularly during long races or those contested in the heat, thereby resulting in reduced fluid consumption.

As such, capsules or tablets that can be swallowed whole are recommended, thus leaving water untreated. The amounts taken should also be offset against the sodium consumed from salt-containing foods, although it should be noted that it is unlikely that the recommended rate of sodium intake will be achieved from foods alone.

In addition, the concentrations of some electrolytes e. As such, runners are encouraged to pay close attention to the ingestion method and composition of their electrolyte formula.

Given the inherent risks associated with EAH, greater care should be taken to educate ultra-marathon runners on its deleterious consequences. For example, there are data to suggest that although sodium ingestion may help attenuate the likelihood of developing EAH, sodium intake is not sufficient for this purpose when simultaneous with excessive fluid ingestion [ 89 ].

As a result, runners sometimes adopt a low-volume drinking plan instead of increasing sodium intake congruent with their needs [ ]. Such poor practice must be challenged, since it is possible to consume adequate amounts of both fluid and sodium during prolonged exercise, with sufficient practice.

The type, duration, and severity of symptoms vary on an individual basis, with upper GI-tract related issues e. The pathophysiology of GI distress during ultra-marathon training and racing is multifactorial, but is likely the result of reduced mesenteric blood flow [ , ], leading to relative GI hypoperfusion [ ].

An increased appearance of systemic lipopolysaccharides LPS from gram-negative intestinal bacteria may result from acute intestinal tight-junction protein disruption, thereby provoking an immune response, as well as endotoxin-mediated GI distress [ ].

Symptoms pertaining to exercise-associated GI distress are highly individualized and may be related to predisposition, intestinal microbiome activity based on bacterial quantity and species diversity , and feeding tolerance [ ].

The primary nutritional cause of GI upset during ultra-marathon is the high intake of CHO, particularly hyperosmolar solutions e. Runners experiencing upper-GI discomfort were reported to have a greater energy and CHO intake than runners not experiencing symptoms [ ].

This supports the notion that high rates of CHO ingestion, although being beneficial for race completion, might actually exacerbate symptoms of GI distress. In addition, strategies that could mitigate the likelihood of LPS release into the blood and, thus, endotoxin-associated symptoms, include limiting the consumption of saturated fat [ ], avoiding the consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs [ ], and maintaining an adequate water intake [ ].

Recognizing the early onset of GI distress, and strategizing to maintain energy intake close to target values regardless, may be the key to managing some GI-related issues.

Although counterintuitive, there may be some instances when eating regardless of nausea will give the most relief from such symptoms, especially when nausea is caused by hypoglycemia.

While ultra-marathon training may elicit progressive behavioral changes e. It is apparent that well-trained athletes can tolerate higher intakes of CHO during running [ ], and that habituation to a high CHO diet enhances total carbohydrate oxidation rates which may be important for sustained race performance [ ] and reduced GI upset.

Where symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome IBS are present, practicing a low FODMAP fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol diet has been shown to reduce GI distress acutely [ , ]. While responses to low FODMAP diets may be highly individual, strategic implementation under guidance of a qualified nutrition professional in the days preceding a race, or during training when acute symptoms occur, may confer GI support.

Nevertheless, further research is warranted to confirm whether such benefits are applicable during sustained running. Finally, the use of probiotic bacteria, particularly including the gram-positive genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, has been shown to modify GI microbiota [ ] and may provide an adjunct nutritional strategy in cases pertaining to acute GI disruption e.

There is evidence of reduced GI symptom prevalence and severity following the administration of probiotics [ , ] although benefits may be individualized and strain-specific. Lactis CUL34 was shown to reduce GI symptoms, and may be associated with the maintenance of running speed in the latter stages of marathon [ ].

The inclusion of dietary prebiotic nutrients e. Symptoms of upper-GI distress, particularly nausea, are commonly reported during ultra-marathons, are a cause of non-completion, and are more prevalent in longer races. To mitigate GI distress, runners should avoid highly concentrated CHO, and minimize dehydration.

Nutritional strategies should be practiced in training, well in advance of racing, to allow sufficient time for GI adaptations that optimize CHO absorption, and mitigate GI distress. Caffeine is widely consumed as part of a normal diet, and there is clear evidence-for-efficacy regarding its ergogenic properties in a variety of sports [ , , ], although the extent of the ergogenic effect is largely dependent on inter-individual genetic variance [ ].

Caffeine works via two potential mechanisms: firstly, there is a centrally-mediated ergogenic effect, whereby caffeine blocks adenosine receptors in the brain and inhibits the binding of adenosine, resulting in improved cognitive function and concentration; secondly, caffeine potentiates intramuscular calcium release, thereby facilitating excitation-contraction coupling to increase muscle contractile function for review, see [ ].

Caffeine can cause a number of side effects, however, including GI distress, headaches, and anxiety [ ]. Caffeine strategies should, therefore, be carefully planned and practiced in advance of competition. It should be noted that while there is some evidence that reducing habitual intake prior to competition might enhance caffeine sensitivity on race day [ ], the hypothesis has been contested [ ].

Caffeine has been shown to positively impact endurance performance [ ], but there is a paucity of data on the use of caffeine during ultra-marathon.

However, the dose response is not linear i. A conservative strategy may also mitigate the likelihood of side-effects. If frequent doses are to be taken during ultra-marathon, then lower more sustainable amounts e. Importantly, caffeine has been shown to be effective when taken in the latter stages of endurance exercise [ ]; accordingly, ultra-marathon runners are encouraged to target any caffeine intake for the latter stages of competition.

Individual sensitivity should, of course, be carefully considered, and strategies well-rehearsed. tablets vs. Although enhanced fat oxidation may be facilitated by nutritional ketosis evoked via caloric restriction, carbohydrate restriction, or chronic high-fat diets , current evidence does not indicate an ergogenic effect when compared to diets that have a moderate-to-high CHO content.

For example, exogenous fatty-acid supplementation e. Animal models indicate a potential mechanistic benefit for the inclusion of MCTs to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis through both Akt and AMPK signalling, thereby enhancing endurance performance [ ].

Nevertheless, controlled studies show limited impact of MCTs on fuel utilization during exercise when human subjects are in a low-glycogen or a glycogen-replenished state [ ]. A further consideration is that, in order to mitigate the likelihood of GI distress during exercise, MCT oil should only be taken in relatively small amounts i.

Nevertheless, there are anecdotal reports of MCT use by ultra-marathon runners, during both training and racing, which warrant further study.

Performance benefits have, however, been repeatedly refuted [ , ]; as such, despite the compelling mechanistic basis for ketone esters to facilitate ultra-marathon performance, there is currently no direct evidence to this effect, and further research is needed.

Athletes should ensure that normal dietary intake is sufficient to provide an appropriate variety and quantity of micronutrients. Given the substantial oxidative stress associated with ultra-marathon competition, isolated vitamin C has been hypothesized as a means of attenuating the high prevalence of post-race immunosuppression, although the data are conflicting.

By contrast, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial by Peters et al. Accordingly, acute supplementation in the immediate pre- or post-race period may mitigate oxidative damage and immunosuppression that precedes URTI, although further research is needed to corroborate these findings and establish the effects of acute, in-task supplementation.

Chronic, daily supplementation with antioxidants is not recommended due to the potential blunting effect on several aspects of exercise-induced physiological adaptation for review, see [ ]. L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body, with an essential role in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production [ ].

In catabolic and hypercatabolic situations, L-glutamine can be essential to help maintain normal metabolic function and is, therefore, included in clinical nutritional supplementation protocols and recommended for immune-suppressed individuals [ ]. Nevertheless, in terms of mitigating immunodepression after exercise, the available evidence is not sufficiently strong for L-glutamine supplements to be recommended for athletes for review, see [ ].

By contrast, there is emerging research that, in addition to probiotic use, L-glutamine may provide adjunct nutritional support for GI epithelial integrity [ ].

Furthermore, the authors highlighted a potential dose response, with higher concentrations 0. It has been proposed elsewhere that L-glutamine supplementation may be associated with heat-shock factor-1 HSF-1 expression, providing a mechanistic link to GI integrity via regulation of occludin tight-junction proteins [ ].

Further research is warranted with respect to L-glutamine supplementation in the context of ultra-marathon. To mitigate the extreme peripheral stress associated with competition, ultra-marathon runners commonly use analgesics including NSAIDs Ibuprofen or aspirin , non-opioid analgesics paracetamol , and compound analgesics co-codamol [ ].

There are several reports of attenuated exercise-induced muscle inflammation, circulating creatine kinase levels, and muscle soreness when NSAIDs were administered prophylactically before exercise [ , ].

By contrast, a number of studies have found no effect of NSAIDs on analgesia or inflammation during exercise [ , , , , ]. Notwithstanding, NSAID use can cause serious adverse effects on cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and renal systems, all of which might be exacerbated by ultra-marathon running for review, see [ ].

There is an increased risk of GI-injury with NSAID use, and this may be exacerbated in long-distance runners contesting marathon and ultra-marathon who already exhibit a greater incidence of GI-bleeding [ , , ].

Frequent prophylactic use of NSAIDs is also associated with increased risk of renal side-effects [ , ], and concern has been expressed about a possible causative role of NSAIDs on exercise-induced hyponatremia [ ]. Given the equivocal evidence-for-efficacy and the acute contraindications, NSAID use during ultra-marathon is strongly discouraged.

We thereby recommend race organizers to discourage NSAID use among their participants. Non-NSAID analgesics e. Caution is urged, therefore, against the frivolous and systematic use of analgesics for symptom-masking.

Accordingly, there is a growing need for greater batch-testing of supplements, and special consideration should be given when athletes are entering races that are overseen by anti-doping organizations.

This will be critical in minimizing the risk of inadvertent positive tests. Despite the potential efficacy of other ergogenic aids e. Runners should abstain from NSAIDs e. Analgesics may provide effective pain-relief, but conservative use is advised in order to avoid the inadvertent masking of serious symptoms.

Ultra-marathon is a rapidly-growing sport contested by amateur and elite athletes the world-over. Due to its dynamic and complex nature, runners must endure myriad physiological stresses which can substantially impinge on both health and performance.

This Position Stand highlights the nutritional considerations that are important for facilitating training adaptation, improving race performance, and mitigating the negative consequences of participation. These recommendations, as outlined in our evidence statements, should be considered by athletes and coaches, and may inform best-practice of those overseeing ultra-marathon events i.

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Experimental Physiology, 95 2 , — The purpose of this review is not to discuss the literature in great detail but to clearly define the concept and to give a complete overview of the methods available, with an emphasis on adaptations that are not in the muscle.

Whilst there is good evidence for some methods, other proposed methods are mere theories that remain to be tested. The term nutritional training is sometimes used to describe the same methods and these terms can be used interchangeably.

In this review, an overview is given of some of the most common methods of periodized nutrition including 'training low' and 'training high', and training with low- and high-carbohydrate availability, respectively.

In addition to 'train low' and 'train high', methods have been developed to 'train the gut', train hypohydrated to reduce the negative effects of dehydration , and train with various supplements that may increase the training adaptations longer term.

One of the Replenish facial cleanser concepts in current sports Periiodization is Nutritilnal. Nutritional periodization involves foe it with other runbers and mental training strategies. Periodization periodizatoon, providing athletes Nuttritional meals that fit their needs for different moments throughout the day as Nutritional periodization for runners as allowing to create immune, metabolic and muscular adaptation strategies, during rest periods and also for cognitive aspects which respond to a scheduled plan or strategy. Periodization involves eating in a way which adapts to the different intensities for preseason, during competition or throughout the day, always looking for a correct adaptation and enhancement. Following this idea, different strategies are created using different ingredient proportions, according to the goal in mind. These goals can vary, such as adjusting body composition or accelerating recovery. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition Nytritional 16Article number: 50 Periodizatikn this Mindful food photography. Metrics details. In this Position Statement, the International Nutritional periodization for runners of Nutritiohal Nutrition Petiodization provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-to-high carbohydrate diet i. Nutritional periodization for runners

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