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Potent antimicrobial formula

Potent antimicrobial formula

Epinecidin-1 is one of the animicrobial AMPs in Potent antimicrobial formula the Green tea cognitive function has been antijicrobial as a Potent antimicrobial formula of the antimifrobial solution. The antimcrobial of Epinecidin-1, Epi-1, Epinecidin-1 Herbal appetite suppressant peptide Potenr Epi-1 antimicrobial peptide were used for the Google Scholar search. M Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Molecules satisfying the growth inhibition threshold during sampling and updating are considered successful molecules and are generated. Pesticide Outlook. Gene expression and localization of the epinecidin-1 antimicrobial peptide in the grouper Epinephelus coioidesand its role in protecting fish against pathogenic infection. Vaara, M.

Potent antimicrobial formula -

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Cloning, expression and antimicrobial activity of an antimicrobial peptide, epinecidin-1, from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

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PLoS One. Pan C-Y, Chen J-Y, Lin T-L, Lin C-H. In vitro activities of three synthetic peptides derived from epinecidin-1 and an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor against Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans, and trichomonas vaginalis.

Monteiro JM, Oliveira MD, Dias RS, Nacif-Marçal L, Feio RN, Ferreira SO, et al. The antimicrobial peptide HS-1 inhibits dengue virus infection. Kim J-O, Kim S-J, Kim J-O, Kim W-S, Oh MJ. Distribution of nervous necrosis virus NNV in infected sevenband grouper, Hyporthodus septemfasciatus by intramuscular injection or immersion challenge.

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Chia T-J, Wu Y-C, Chen J-Y, Chi S-C. Antimicrobial peptides AMP with antiviral activity against fish nodavirus. Brito B, Rodriguez L, Hammond J, Pinto J, Perez A. Review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from to Transbound Emerg Dis.

Huang H-N, Pan C-Y, Chen J-Y. Grouper Epinephelus coioides antimicrobial peptide epinecidin-1 exhibits antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro. Park SL, Huang Y-JS, Lyons AC, Ayers VB, Hettenbach SM, McVey DS, et al. North American domestic pigs are susceptible to experimental infection with Japanese encephalitis virus.

Sci Rep. Huang H-N, Pan C-Y, Rajanbabu V, Chan Y-L, Wu C-J, Chen J-Y. Modulation of immune responses by the antimicrobial peptide, epinecidin epi -1, and establishment of an Epibased inactivated vaccine. Xu D, Wei J, Cui H, Gong J, Yan Y, Lai R, et al.

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Studies on anticancer activities of antimicrobial peptides. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta BBA -Biomembranes. Lin W-J, Chien Y-L, Pan C-Y, Lin T-L, Chen J-Y, Chiu S-J, et al. Epinecidin-1, an antimicrobial peptide from fish Epinephelus coioides which has an antitumor effect like lytic peptides in human fibrosarcoma cells.

Chen J-Y, Lin W-J, Wu J-L, Her GM, Hui C-F. Epinecidin-1 peptide induces apoptosis which enhances antitumor effects in human leukemia U cells. Deslouches B, Di YP. Antimicrobial peptides with selective antitumor mechanisms: prospect for anticancer applications. Tomic-Canic M, Wong LL, Smola H.

The epithelialisation phase in wound healing: options to enhance wound closure. J Wound Care. Huang H-N, Rajanbabu V, Pan C-Y, Chan Y-L, Wu C-J, Chen J-Y. Use of the antimicrobial peptide Epinecidin-1 to protect against MRSA infection in mice with skin injuries. Huang H-N, Pan C-Y, Wu H-Y, Chen J-Y.

Antimicrobial peptide Epinecidin-1 promotes complete skin regeneration of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected burn wounds in a swine model.

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Ting C-H, Chen Y-C, Chen J-Y. Nile tilapia fry fed on antimicrobial peptide Epinecidinexpressing Artemia cyst exhibit enhanced immunity against acute bacterial infection. Jheng Y-H, Lee L-H, Ting C-H, Pan C-Y, Hui C-F, Chen J-Y.

Zebrafish fed on recombinant Artemia expressing epinecidin-1 exhibit increased survival and altered expression of immunomodulatory genes upon Vibrio vulnificus infection.

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Mohamed MF, Abdelkhalek A, Seleem MN. Evaluation of short synthetic antimicrobial peptides for treatment of drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus. Download references. Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Student Research Committee, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Biotechnology Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. Infectious Diseases Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. AN, HZ, KG conceived and designed the study. All authors contributed to the study protocol and analyzed and interpreted the data.

AN, HZ, KG drafted the manuscript, critically reviewed it and prepared the final version. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Kiarash Ghazvini.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.

Reprints and permissions. Neshani, A. et al. Epinecidin-1, a highly potent marine antimicrobial peptide with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 20 , 33 Download citation. In a typical conjugation reaction, β-carboxy phthalocyanine zinc Hexafluorophosphate benzotriazole tetramethyl uronium HBTU; 61 mg, 0.

After the reaction was completed, the filtered solid was washed three times by DMF and methanol until the filtrate became colorless. The TFA-treated solution was filtered on a Buchner funnel, and the filtrate was concentrated with rotary evaporation, followed by the addition of cool anhydrous ethyl ether to obtain precipitate.

The new synthetic compounds were further purified on a preparative high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC; Dalian Elite Analytical Instruments Co. UV-Vis spectra and photo-degraded curve was measured by BioTek Synergy 4 multi-mode microplate reader in a well plate at room temperature.

The synthetic AMPs were further characterized by high-resolution mass spectra. The peptide or new compounds were first dissolved in PBST PBS with 0. The bacterial suspensions were then incubated in well plates with the compound peptides.

The luminescence was monitored for 1 h to measure the bacterial viability. The percentage of survived bacteria was determined from the luminescence intensities of the treated group divided by the luminescence signal of the controls. aureus ATCC , or MRSA ATCC were grown in LB culture medium at 37°C under aerobic conditions overnight 8—12 h before use.

Minimum inhibitory concentrations MICs were measured by the double dilution method. Inocula of bacteria were prepared by adjusting overnight cultures in LB medium.

Aliquots of μl of the inocula were mixed with μl peptides of serial double dilutions in centrifuge tubes and then incubated with shaking at 37°C for 20 h without light. Bactericidal kinetics assay was also determined. The bacteria were incubated at 37°C and rpm.

An aliquot of μl of the suspension was taken out to measure the absorption at nm on microplate reader once an hour for up to 12 h. Photo-assisted antimicrobial activity assays of the compound peptides against ATCC standard strains were carried out by colony counting method.

The agar plates with only bacterial suspension were used as negative control. The peptide and bacterial suspension were incubated together in well microplates first. Under the same conditions, for comparison, the other groups were set without light.

After incubation for 40 min at room temperature, aliquots of μl were taken out of the solutions and placed on agar plates at serial dilutions, then incubated at 37°C for 18—24 h. Here, A is the bacterial colony number on the agar plates containing various concentrations of the peptides, and B is the colony number for negative control.

A similar procedure was carried out to study the effect of low dose of light on the activity of PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 against S. aureus ATCC and E.

coli ATCC , except the changing irradiate light doses 0, 0. The reactive oxygen species ROS generated by Pc mainly includes singlet oxygen and may also contain hydroxyl radical in some cases.

In this study, the ROS generation of PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 was measured with a probe [2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate DCFH-DA ]. In the presence of ROS, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate DCFH-DA can be converted to 2,7-dichlorofluorescein DCF, ex nm, em nm.

The solutions were illuminated using a planar LED light source for 5 min at intervals, and the emission intensity of DCF at nm was measured every 30 s after illumination. The no-light radiation group was used as control. The morphology changes of bacteria treated with PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 were observed using SEM.

Untreated bacteria acted as the control. coli strains ATCC were harvested by centrifuging at 6, rpm for 10 min and washed with sterile PBStwice. For the fixation, the bacteria were fixed with precooling 2.

The dehydrated E. coli solution was dropwise onto silicon wafer and dried at 37°C overnight. Then, prepared specimens were sprayed with gold before observation using SEM.

Membrane permeability of bacteria was determined by the 8-anilinenaphthalene sulfonic acid ANS uptake assay. PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 final concentration of 10 μM was added to bacterial suspension E.

A group without light illumination was set up as control. The fluorescent hydrophobic probe ANS with a final concentration of 5. The excitation and emission wavelengths of ANS were set at and nm, respectively. A localized infection mouse model was established to evaluate the antibacterial activity of PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 against S.

aureus in vivo according to the procedure that we previously established Zhang et al. Kunming mice 4-week-old, 25 ± 2 g, purchased from Shanghai SLAC Laboratory Animal Co.

Mice were divided into three groups: two groups were treated with PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 and S. aureus , with or without light, another group was treated with only S. Each group had six mice.

All groups of mice were allowed free access to water and food throughout the experimental process. In each group, excisional wounds 10 mm × 10 mm was made on the dorsal surface of the mouse by disinfected scissors to a depth of 2.

The bottom of the wound was panniculus carnosus with no visible bleeding. An aliquot 50 μl of mid-log phase S. In the experimental group, 50 μl saline solution of PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 at final concentration of 20 μM concentration of MIC was added into the wound surface after inoculation with S.

The area of the wounds and body weight of mice were measured each day. In order to evaluate the biosafety of PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 , we measured its cytotoxicity on human embryonic lung fibroblast cells.

The culture medium was used as control. After another h incubation, the culture medium was refreshed and 3- 4,5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT was added. After 4-h incubation at 37°C, the absorbance at nm was measured on a multi-mode microplate reader BioTek Synergy 4.

The inhibition rate of cell growth was calculated by the following equation:. Meanwhile, an in vitro hemolysis assay was performed to evaluate hemoglobin Hb release in the plasma as an indicator of red blood cell lysis following peptide PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 exposure. Typically, μl 0.

Then, red blood cells were pelleted down by centrifuging the samples at 1, rpm for 10min. The supernatant was aspirated, and the extent of hemolysis was quantified by determining the amounts of released Hb in the supernatant at nm against Hb standard.

Hemolysis rate Z can be calculated by the following equation:. Here, Dt , Dnc , and Dpc represent the absorption values at nm of samples, the negative controls, and the positive controls.

In order to test the stability of PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 when exposed to some proteases in human, we incubated the saline solution of PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 final concentration of μM with high concentration nM of trypsin and equal volume of saline solution for the control group.

Then, all groups were incubated at 37°C for 30 min. Supernatant of centrifugation was measured in HPLC, and the procedure was the same as we mentioned above. In order to find out metabolic characteristics of PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 in vivo , we evaluated the biodistribution and clearance of PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 in organs and blood of mice.

Kunming mice were divided into eight groups five mice per group , and the PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 50 μM , RWRWRW 0.

The mice were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h post-injection, and their primary organs liver, kidneys, heart, spleen, lung, stomach, intestines or muscles were collected postmortem. Meanwhile, their blood was collected through enucleation of eyeballs. These samples were then washed with saline and imaged on the three-dimension FMT TM LX PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA, United States using the same acquisition settings as the in vivo imaging to quantitate the peptide average concentrations in the samples.

The blood of mice was diluted 10 times with DMF, immediately after collection, and then centrifuged to get supernatant for further determination. The supernatant was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer F HITACHI, Tokyo, Japan.

The fluorescence intensity was recorded. The excitation and emission wavelengths were set at and nm. Then, the plasma concentrations of the PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 were determined using a concentration-fluorescence standard curve we made.

Here, k represents the slope of fluorescence intensity-log concentration regression equation. Each test was repeated at least three times.

The data were presented as the means ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance. Multiple comparisons of the means were done by the least significant difference test.

All computations were made by employing statistical software. Introduction of hydrophobic moieties, like acyl or aliphatic chains, is an optimization strategy for stronger antimicrobial efficacy and broader antimicrobial spectrum Radzishevsky et al.

Pc is a synthetic hydrophobic compound with aromatic ring size equivalent to four indole side chains of tryptophan. The use of Pc has an added feature: upon absorption of light at nm maximal absorption of the Pc , Pc will undergo inter-system crossing and react with molecular oxygen, generating ROS that eliminates pathogens nearby Zhang et al.

Here, we design a series of AMPs with Pc linked to RWRWRW hexapeptidyl unit separated by a triglycine spacer Figure 1. The carboxyl terminal of peptides was not amidated to promote aqueous solubility after conjugating hydrophobic Pc group.

Pentalysine moiety K 5 was also integrated into the peptide chain for two purposes: 1 enhance aqueous solubility and 2 increase antimicrobial efficacy to Gram-positive strains.

Here, the pentalysine was incorporated at two different orientations: either before or after RWRWRW unit. As controls, the peptides without the Pc group or pentalysine moiety K 5 were also generated for comparison. Figure 1. Designed structures of antimicrobial Pc-peptides based on core peptide RWRWRW 3.

To synthesize these peptides, the side chain-protected peptides were commercially acquired, followed by their covalent conjugation at amino terminal to a mono-carboxy Pc Chen et al. The compounds were purified to highly homogeneous based on C18 reverse phase column on HPLC.

The order of retention times of the compounds was consistent with the hydrophilicity and polarity predicted based on their molecular structures Figure 2A. Compounds 4 and 5 are well soluble in DMSO and aqueous solution.

By comparison, compound 3 shows poor solubility in water Figure 2B. The soluble antimicrobial Pc-peptide APP compounds 4 and 5 were characterized by electrospray ionization ESI -mass spectrometry MS; Supplementary Figure S2. All the synthetic antimicrobial Pc-peptides APPs showed strong absorptions at nm in DMSO Figure 2C , the typical feature of Pc Chen et al.

Figure 2. Characterization of the antimicrobial Pc-peptides APPs and Pc-COOH. The APPs had high purity based on high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC profiles on C18 column A and different solubility in both dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO and water B. All APPs exhibited a strong absorption band at nm in DMSO C.

To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of APPs, we used bioluminescent Gram-positive S. coli , where the bioluminescent intensity [relative luminescence units RLUs ] was proportional to the number of live bacteria.

The peptides at various concentrations were incubated with the strains, and the luminescence was monitored on a microplate reader to obtain the IC 50 of new peptides against these bacteria Table 1.

Compound 4 or 5 was shown to possess 2—4 times higher efficacy on both bacterial strains than compound 1 or 2 Table 1 , especially against Gram-negative E. coli , which was likely due to the extra hydrophobicity provided by the Pc group. Compound 3 [PcG 3 RW 3 ] exhibited moderate efficacy to bacteria compared to compound 4 or 5 but with poor aqueous solubility.

Compound 4 [PcG 3 K 5 RW 3 ] turned out to be the most effective compound against either Gram-positive S. aureus or Gram-negative E. coli with IC 50 s of It is likely that both Pc moiety and tryptophan residue of compound 4 anchor directly into the phospholipid bilayer of bacterial membrane and further lead to cell death.

Table 1. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations IC 50 s of antimicrobial peptides against bacteria. To further validate the antimicrobial efficacy, we measured MIC on two bacterial strains E.

aureus ATCC and the MRSA strain Table 2. The results verified the conclusion obtained using bioluminescent bacteria. Compounds with Pc group compounds 3 , 4 , and 5 exhibited much stronger inhibitory efficacies against either E.

coli or S. aureus than the compounds of peptides. Furthermore, MRSA strain showed similar sensitivity to the peptides as the wild-type S. aureus strain.

It should be mentioned that the antimicrobial efficacy data here are in the same range but slightly lower than those previously reported for RWRWRW-NH 2 Strom et al.

This is likely due to the lack of C-terminal amidation of our peptides, which appears to be a key parameter for the efficacy.

Table 2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations MICs of antimicrobial peptides against different types of bacterial strains. lactic acid , citric acid , acetic acid , either as ingredients or as disinfectants. For example, beef carcasses often are sprayed with acids, and then rinsed or steamed, to reduce the prevalence of Escherichia coli.

In recent years, the antimicrobial activity of coordination compounds has been investigated. Traditional herbalists used plants to treat infectious disease. Many of these plants have been investigated scientifically for antimicrobial activity, and some plant products have been shown to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.

A number of these agents appear to have structures and modes of action that are distinct from those of the antibiotics in current use, suggesting that cross-resistance with agents already in use may be minimal. Copper-alloy surfaces have natural intrinsic antimicrobial properties and can kill microorganisms such as E.

coli and Staphylococcus. Many essential oils included in herbal pharmacopoeias are claimed to possess antimicrobial activity, with the oils of bay , cinnamon , clove and thyme reported to be the most potent in studies with foodborne bacterial pathogens. According to the U.

Environmental Protection Agency EPA , and defined by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act , antimicrobial pesticides are used to control growth of microbes through disinfection, sanitation, or reduction of development and to protect inanimate objects, industrial processes or systems, surfaces, water, or other chemical substances from contamination, fouling, or deterioration caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime.

These pesticide products are registered under the premise that, when used properly, they do not demonstrate unreasonable side effects to humans or the environment. Even once certain products are on the market, the EPA continues to monitor and evaluate them to make sure they maintain efficacy in protecting public health.

Public health products regulated by the EPA are divided into three categories: [38]. Antimicrobial pesticides have the potential to be a major factor in drug resistance. Workers are advised to minimize exposure to these agents by wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and safety glasses.

Additionally, it is important to follow the handling instructions properly, as that is how the EPA has deemed them as safe to use. Employees should be educated about the health hazards and encouraged to seek medical care if exposure occurs. Ozone can kill microorganisms in air, water and process equipment and has been used in settings such as kitchen exhaust ventilation, garbage rooms, grease traps, biogas plants , wastewater treatment plants, textile production, breweries , dairies , food and hygiene production, pharmaceutical industries , bottling plants, zoos, municipal drinking-water systems, swimming pools and spas, and in the laundering of clothes and treatment of in—house mold and odors.

Antimicrobial scrubs can reduce the accumulation of odors and stains on scrubs, which in turn improves their longevity. These scrubs also come in a variety of colors and styles. As antimicrobial technology develops at a rapid pace, these scrubs are readily available, with more advanced versions hitting the market every year.

Elements such as chlorine, iodine, fluorine, and bromine are nonmetallic in nature and constitute the halogen family. Each of these halogens have a different antimicrobial effect that is influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, contact time, and type of microorganism.

Chlorine and iodine are the two most commonly used antimicrobials. Chlorine is extensively used as a disinfectant in the water treatment plants, drug, and food industries. In wastewater treatment plants, chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant.

It oxidizes soluble contaminants and kills bacteria and viruses. It is also highly effective against bacterial spores. The mode of action is by breaking the bonds present in these microorganisms. When a bacterial enzyme comes in contact with a compound containing chlorine, the hydrogen atom in that molecule gets displaced and is replaced with chlorine.

This thus changes the enzyme function which in turn leads to the death of the bacterium. Iodine is most commonly used for sterilization and wound cleaning. The three major antimicrobial compounds containing iodine are alcohol-iodine solution, an aqueous solution of iodine, and iodophors.

Iodophors are more bactericidal and are used as antiseptics as they are less irritating when applied to the skin. Bacterial spores on the other hand cannot be killed by iodine, but they can be inhibited by iodophors.

The growth of microorganisms is inhibited when iodine penetrates into the cells and oxidizes proteins, genetic material, and fatty acids.

Bromine is also an effective antimicrobial that is used in water treatment plants. When mixed with chlorine it is highly effective against bacterial spores such as S. Alcohols are commonly used as disinfectants and antiseptics. Alcohols kill vegetative bacteria, most viruses and fungi.

Ethyl alcohol, n-propanol and isopropyl alcohol are the most commonly used antimicrobial agents. Escherichia coli , Salmonella , and Staphylococcus aureus are a few bacteria whose growth can be inhibited by alcohols.

Alcohols are not quite efficient when it comes to spores. The mode of action is by denaturing the proteins. Alcohols interfere with the hydrogen bonds present in the protein structure. Alcohols also dissolve the lipid membranes that are present in microorganisms.

Alcohols are cheap and effective antimicrobials. They are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Alcohols are commonly used in hand sanitizers, antiseptics, and disinfectants. Phenol also known as carbolic acid was one of the first chemicals which was used as an antimicrobial agent.

It has high antiseptic properties. It is bacteriostatic at concentrations of 0. They are active against a wide range of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Today phenol derivatives such as thymol and cresol are used because they are less toxic compared to phenol.

These phenolic compounds have a benzene ring along with the —OH group incorporated into their structures. They have a higher antimicrobial activity. These compounds inhibit microbial growth by precipitating proteins which lead to their denaturation and by penetrating into the cell membrane of microorganisms and disrupting it.

Phenolic compounds can also deactivate enzymes and damage the amino acids in microbial cells. Phenolics such as fentichlore, an antibacterial and antifungal agent are used as an oral treatment for fungal infections. Trischlosan is highly effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Hexachlorophene Bisphenol is used as a surfactant. It is widely used in soaps, handwashes, and skin products because of its antiseptic properties. It is also used as a sterilizing agent. Cresol is an effective antimicrobial and is widely used in mouthwashes and cough drops.

Phenolics have high antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is not used on the packing materials however. Ihloff and Kalitzki find a small but measurable amount remains in the skin of fruits processed in this manner.

They are highly effective against bacteria, fungi and viruses. Aldehydes inhibit bacterial growth by disrupting the outer membrane.

They are used in the disinfection and sterilization of surgical instruments. Being highly toxic they are not used in antiseptics. Currently, only three aldehyde compounds are of widespread practical use as disinfectant biocides, namely glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, and ortho-phthalaldehyde OPA despite the demonstration that many other aldehydes possess good antimicrobial activity.

Microorganisms have a minimum temperature, an optimum, and a maximum temperature for growth. Different organisms show different degrees of resistance or susceptibility to heat or temperature, some organisms such as bacterial endospore are more resistant while vegetative cells are less resistant and are easily killed at lower temperatures.

This process involves the exposure to a temperature of degrees Celsius for an hour, on each for several days. Bacterial endospores can be killed using this method.

Both dry and moist heat are effective in eliminating microbial life. For example, jars used to store preserves such as jam can be sterilized by heating them in a conventional oven. Heat is also used in pasteurization , a method for slowing the spoilage of foods such as milk, cheese, juices, wines and vinegar.

Such products are heated to a certain temperature for a set period of time, which greatly reduces the number of harmful microorganisms. Low temperature is also used to inhibit microbial activity by slowing down microbial metabolism. Foods are often irradiated to kill harmful pathogens.

Desiccation is also known as dehydration. It is the state of extreme dryness or the process of extreme drying. Some microorganisms like bacteria, yeasts and molds require water for their growth.

Desiccation dries up the water content thus inhibiting microbial growth. On the availability of water, the bacteria resume their growth, thus desiccation does not completely inhibit bacterial growth. The instrument used to carry out this process is called a desiccator.

This process is widely used in the food industry and is an efficient method for food preservation. Desiccation is also largely used in the pharmaceutical industry to store vaccines and other products. These surfaces are especially important for the healthcare industry. Molecular dynamics simulation and time-lapse imaging are typically used to investigate these mechanisms.

Osmotic pressure is the pressure required to prevent a solvent from passing from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration through a semipermeable membrane. When the concentration of dissolved materials or solute is higher inside the cell than it is outside, the cell is said to be in a hypotonic environment and water will flow into the cell.

This plasmolysis and plasmotysis kills bacteria because it causes change in osmotic pressure. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools.

What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item. Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects. Wikimedia Commons. Drug used to kill microorganisms or stop their growth.

For microbicides that target STDs, see Microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases. Main article: Antibiotic. Main article: Fungicide. Main article: Antiviral drug. Main article: Antiparasitic. Main article: Broad-spectrum therapeutic.

The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate.

January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Antimicrobial properties of copper and Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces. Main article: Ozone Applications. Main articles: Dry heat sterilization and Moist heat sterilization.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Archived from the original on 24 April

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The Kirby-Bauer Method for Antibiotic Susceptibility (with examples)

Author: Migore

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