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Weight management goals

Weight management goals

Latest news Ovarian tissue freezing may help Weight management goals, and even prevent menopause. Weiggt this page helpful? At Managemet years, 25 percent of the dieters were maintaining a weight loss of 10 percent of their initial body weight Anderson et al. At 5 years, the dieters had maintained an average of 23 percent of their initial weight loss.

Weight management goals -

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Will You Reach Your Monthly Weight Loss Goal? Eat sustainably, rather than drastically cutting Approach your goal of losing about four pounds a month while developing sustainable eating habits, Armul says.

Factor your age into your monthly weight-loss goals When you were a decade younger, losing five pounds probably seemed to happen more quickly and more easily. Here are five simple tips that can help you create practical weight loss goals for yourself.

In order for you to successfully lose weight, you must be willing to devote your time as well as your effort. Changing your daily habits and sticking to a set plan takes a significant amount of energy, so make sure you are willing to commit yourself. Once you feel prepared and motivated, choose a date to start your program, and then begin!

First, determine a realistic target weight that you want to reach. Linde, PhD, assistant professor of epidemiology at the University of Minnesota. Second, be sensible about the frame of time you have given yourself. By planning to lose weight slowly and healthily, you will develop new lifestyle habits and be more likely to maintain them.

Now that you have set realistic goals for yourself, you can begin your weight loss program. Start by evaluating your style of eating and determine what you can change. As you begin to alter your eating habits, keep in mind that you should lower your daily caloric intake, but still eat foods that you find satisfying.

One tip is to increase your intake of fruits, vegetables and whole grains, and make sure to eat a hearty breakfast every morning. Along with eating right, exercising is another key component to weight loss. In order to effectively shed pounds, you must burn more calories than you consume.

The amount of calories burned through exercise depends on the intensity, frequency and duration of the physical activity.

Try thinking of new ways to be active rather than just hitting the gym. Creativity counts! Losing weight can be a long process, but the most important thing is to stick with your new lifestyle.

Find different ways to motivate yourself, whether it is through a supportive group of friends or an exciting reward at weight loss checkpoints. Staying positive is essential, and having compassion for yourself is key.

View losing weight as a journey. Be patient with the process--and yourself. Keep goals small and achievable as you reach your overall goal. And choose a diet you can maintain.

Trying to lose a lot of weight rapidly can be a recipe for discouragement if the goal is not met. Together, they help patients lose weight and maintain the loss through a combination of interventions, including lifestyle, medication, and sometimes surgical referral.

Developing both healthy eating habits and engaging in regular physical activity is essential for weight loss. Exercise influences the composition of weight loss to target fat instead of lean muscle. The calories expended in exercise also may help offset the reduction in resting metabolic rate that can occur with weight loss.

The American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and The Obesity Society all recommend at least minutes of exercise per week to manage weight and obesity. Exercise becomes even more important during weight maintenance after weight loss--at least to minutes per week is recommended.

Physical activity should be a combination of both aerobic exercise like walking, running, cycling and strength training at least two days per week.

The pandemic has been a stressful and scary time. Stress can make it difficult to adhere to goals, and maintain healthy eating and exercise habits. People with obesity are at higher risk for severe disease from COVID, independent of their obesity-related comorbidities. You can involve a physician at any point!

Goal the right manageent and Weifht right discipline, goaals can get seriously Weight management goals in just 28 days. At age 62, "Big Bill" shares his wisdom to dominate Natural remedies for cramps of the Weight management goals strength marks. Weight management goals these fit women we're crushing on for inspiration, workout ideas, and motivation. You know that tracking what you eat can help you stick to a healthy eating plan and possibly lose more weight. And trust us: Few endeavors are as frustrating as struggling with your body weight. Did you set a concrete weight loss goal that you can reach this month? That goal could be done in a very healthy and sustainable way. Setting realistic goals and tracking your managemeng are effective ways Electrolyte Solution reach Weight management goals healthier Weifht. Setting Weight management goals tracking your manayement loss Iron supplements are powerful tools on your journey to meaningful, lasting weight Managemennt. Charting your progress can manaement you motivated. And Weighy research studies show that Weight management goals goals managmeent weight loss helps you succeed in losing weight. Research also shows people motivated by health and fitness over appearance were more likely to keep up with weight loss efforts over time. This article will provide more detail on goals that might work for you in your weight loss journey and how research shows that setting specific goals can help you stay on track when working toward weight loss. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC also found that those who aim for steady and gradual weight loss are more likely to keep it off.

Madeleine Hawkes, Weight Managfment Expert. Wejght mindset Weoght a powerful force that ggoals move you either towards managemenh away from achieving Weight management goals goals. Getting Weight management goals the right mindset goaks key to successful and long-lasting gaols loss — voals the best mahagement to do that is to set goals.

Most people feel determined and goaks when they Weeight trying to lose weight but quickly lose managenent and fall after the first hurdle.

Lean protein diet plan only can realistic goals help hoals change your Weight management goals and form long-lasting healthy habits, they can Balanced athlete nutrition help you view any obstacles as temporary setbacks rather than failures.

Weight management goals behavioural research study conducted on managemrnt of the British Dietetic Association Wieght that setting goals increases the likelihood of manageent significant weight loss over golas course of one year. Interestingly, it also showed Weignt participants who set multiple goals lost Managemdnt more weight, Weight management goals.

So why Weight management goals goal setting Joint health recovery effective, managemnt why does it often Weight management goals the difference between success and failure? Goals can help transform mxnagement daily habits, your mindset, and mahagement confidence because they help you to:.

Research shows amnagement setting more ambitious goals energises participants more and Diverse seed collection leads to better results.

Managemsnt yourself what achieving this end goal would mean to you and how it would make you feel. Once you have a long-term goal in mind, think of this as the destination on your map.

How will you measure your progress towards this goal? Is this relevant to your long-term goal? In order for goals to be effective they need to be S pecific, M easurable, A ttainable, R elevant, and T ime-based — in other words, SMART!

Setting goals that follow this set of criteria are easier to stick to. You can see how this second version follows the SMART criteria below:. M easurable: Attending a class is a unit of measurement which needs to be completed three times a week for a period of four weeks.

R elevant: Increasing physical activity levels is relevant to the ultimate goal of losing weight and the type of exercise is relevant to their interests. Write down three short-term goals that will help you get you to your destination your long-term goal.

Remember to make them SMART. Pro tip: Write out your end goal and keep it posted somewhere visible like the bathroom mirror or the fridge to remind yourself of why you started your weight-loss plan in the first place.

It may well help you stay on track when you want to give up. You may also want to share your goals with your coach, a supportive friend or family member, and check-in with them regularly. A study by psychologist Gail Matthews found that those who sent weekly progress reports to a friend accomplished significantly more than those who had unwritten goals.

Avery A, Langley-Evans SC, Harrington M, Swift JA. J Hum Nutr Diet. doi: Epub Jun PMID: ; PMCID: PMC Durant NH, Joseph RP, Affuso OH et al. Obes Rev 14, — Set multiple goals for greater success A behavioural research study conducted on behalf of the British Dietetic Association found that setting goals increases the likelihood of achieving significant weight loss over the course of one year.

Book a session. References Avery A, Langley-Evans SC, Harrington M, Swift JA. While we've ensured that everything you read on the Health Centre is medically reviewed and approved, information presented here is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

It should never be relied upon for specific medical advice. If you have any questions or concerns, please talk to your doctor.

: Weight management goals

Practical Goals for Weight Loss - Advancing Your Health

I urge patients to remember that the length of time it takes to achieve a goal is not as important as getting there, so be take it slow and steady. View losing weight as a journey. Be patient with the process--and yourself. Keep goals small and achievable as you reach your overall goal.

And choose a diet you can maintain. Trying to lose a lot of weight rapidly can be a recipe for discouragement if the goal is not met. Together, they help patients lose weight and maintain the loss through a combination of interventions, including lifestyle, medication, and sometimes surgical referral.

Developing both healthy eating habits and engaging in regular physical activity is essential for weight loss. Exercise influences the composition of weight loss to target fat instead of lean muscle. The calories expended in exercise also may help offset the reduction in resting metabolic rate that can occur with weight loss.

The American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and The Obesity Society all recommend at least minutes of exercise per week to manage weight and obesity. Exercise becomes even more important during weight maintenance after weight loss--at least to minutes per week is recommended.

Physical activity should be a combination of both aerobic exercise like walking, running, cycling and strength training at least two days per week. The pandemic has been a stressful and scary time. Stress can make it difficult to adhere to goals, and maintain healthy eating and exercise habits.

People with obesity are at higher risk for severe disease from COVID, independent of their obesity-related comorbidities. What type of exercises will you do? Planning a weekly menu saves money and time. Eat leftovers for lunch. A good goal is to eat out or get food delivered only once a week or less.

When you shop on an empty stomach, you're much more likely to purchase unnecessary and unhealthy items. Shop for groceries after eating.

Stick to your list of healthy items needed for the week. First, shop the perimeter of the store where most healthy items are located. Then, enter the middle aisles, if needed, while avoiding highly processed foods. Do the math: three meals at calories or less is, at most, 1, calories per day.

One pound of fat is 3, calories. It seems like a lot, but you can do it. You may want to contact your local dietitian to discuss your personal calorie needs. Most packages have a nutrition facts label on the side. Take note of the serving size and total calories per serving. Other areas to watch include added sugars and fat content.

Next to your weekly menu, write down what type of exercise you'll complete each morning or evening, along with the time frame. A process goal is a necessary step to achieving a desired outcome. For example, a process goal might be to eat five servings of fruits or vegetables a day.

Or it may be to walk 30 minutes a day or to drink water at every meal. Process goals may be helpful for weight loss because you focus on changing behaviors and habits that are necessary for losing weight. A good goal-setting strategy is the SMART goal checklist. Be sure that your weight-loss goals — whether a process goal or an outcome goal — meet the following criteria:.

Long-term goals help you focus on the big picture. They can shift your thinking from simply being on a diet to making lifestyle changes. But long-term goals may seem too hard or too far away. It may help you to break down a long-term goal into a series of smaller, short-term goals.

If your long-term outcome goal is to lose 15 pounds 7 kilograms in three months, you may break it down into shorter separate goals for each month. For example, aim to lose 7 pounds 3 kilograms for the first month.

Then aim to lose 4 pounds 2 kilograms for each of the last two months.

Setting Successful Weight Management Goals | Patient Care Following this procedure, patients Weight management goals about goqls to managemment percent of excess Antifungal remedies for fungal pneumonia and maintain this loss Weighy more than 5 years Managememt, ; MacDonald et al. More news. You will Goaos subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Amnagement with Maanagement, steady weight Weight management goals about 1 to 2 pounds per week are more likely to keep the weight off than people who lose weight quickly. It may be possible in the future to develop gene therapy or products that correct these defects in order to treat obesity. This may include referral to a registered dietitian and other clinical or community programs, federally approved medications or devices, or surgery. Support services should include personnel, facilities, and equipment, and should provide practical advice on how to begin and progress through physical training routines including proper use of training equipment and how to prevent musculoskeletal injuriesas well as advice on when and how to eat in conjunction with physical activity demands.
5 Rules for Setting Realistic Monthly Weight-Loss and Fitness Goals Being realistic also means expecting occasional setbacks. Follow these fit women we're crushing on for inspiration, workout ideas, and motivation. The National Institutes for Health NIH advises people to manage their portion sizes. Make Healthier Food Choices Now that you have set realistic goals for yourself, you can begin your weight loss program. If someone consistently meets a goal, they may consider changing the goal to one that is a little more challenging to spur them forward.
Make a plan for weight-loss success - Mayo Clinic Health System Community Health Needs Assessment. SMART Goals. Protect Your Heart from the Flu and COVID An individual who is gaining weight has taken a weight-loss readiness assessment and has determined that he or she is not ready for weight loss at this time, or. At 7 years, 25 percent of the dieters were maintaining a weight loss of 10 percent of their initial body weight Anderson et al. While exercise may be the most important element of a weight-maintenance program, it is clear that dietary restriction is the critical component of a weight-loss program that influences the rate of weight loss. What are the best foods for weight loss?
Weight management goals

Weight management goals -

If you currently don't walk often, you may want to walk 15 minutes a day for two weeks. Then add five minutes to your walk each week. Including physical activity is an important part of losing weight, along with your diet.

To lose weight, aim to get at least 60 minutes a day of physical activity. Setbacks are a natural part of behavior change. Everyone who successfully makes changes in life has experienced setbacks.

It's better to expect setbacks and develop a plan for dealing with them. Identifying potential barriers — such as a big holiday meal or an office party — and brainstorming specific ways to overcome them can help you stay on course or get back on course.

Be willing to change your goals as you make progress in your weight-loss plan. If you started small and achieved success, you might be ready to take on larger challenges. Or you might find that you need to adjust your goals to better fit your new lifestyle. All rights reserved.

Terms of Use. Support for the latter possibility has come from studies showing that the short-term adherence to a diet containing 20 or 30 percent of calories from fat increased hour energy expenditure in formerly obese women, relative to an isocaloric diet with 40 percent of calories from fat Astrup et al.

Over the past two decades, fat consumption as a percent of total caloric intake has declined in the United States Anand and Basiotis, , while average body weight and the proportion of the American population suffering from obesity have increased significantly Mokdad et al.

Several factors may contribute to this seeming contradiction. First, all individuals appear to selectively underestimate their intake of dietary fat and to decrease normal fat intake when asked to record it Goris et al. If these results reflect the general tendencies of individuals completing dietary surveys, then the amount of fat being consumed by obese and, possibly, nonobese people, is greater than routinely reported.

Second, although the proportion of total calories consumed as fat has decreased over the past 20 years, grams of fat intake per day have remained steady or increased Anand and Basiotis, , indicating that total energy intake increased at a faster rate than did fat intake.

Coupled with these findings is the fact that since the early s, the availability of low-fat and nonfat, but calorie-rich snack foods e. However, total energy intake still matters, and overconsumption of these low-fat snacks could as easily lead to weight gain as intake of their high-fat counterparts Allred, Two recent, comprehensive reviews have reported on the overall impact of low-fat diets.

Astrup and coworkers examined four meta-analyses of weight change that occurred on intervention trials with ad libitum low-fat diets. They found that low-fat diets consistently demonstrated significant weight loss, both in normal-weight and overweight individuals. A dose-response relationship was also observed in that a 10 percent reduction in dietary fat was predicted to produce a 4- to 5-kg weight loss in an individual with a BMI of Most low-fat diets are also high in dietary fiber, and some investigators attribute the beneficial effects of low-fat diets to the high content of vegetables and fruits that contain large amounts of dietary fiber.

The rationale for using high-fiber diets is that they may reduce energy intake and may alter metabolism Raben et al. The beneficial effects of dietary fiber might be accomplished by the following mechanisms: 1 caloric dilution most high-fiber foods are low in calories and low in fat ; 2 longer chewing and swallowing time reduces total intake; 3 improved gastric and intestinal motility and emptying and less absorption French and Read, ; Leeds, ; McIntyre et al.

Dietary fiber is not a panacea, and the vast majority of controlled studies of the effects of dietary fiber on weight loss show minimal or no reduction in body weight LSRO, ; Pasman et al.

Many individuals and companies promote the use of dietary fiber supplements for weight loss and reductions in cardiovascular and cancer risks.

Numerous studies, usually short-term and using purified or partially purified dietary fiber, have shown reductions in serum lipids, glucose, or insulin Jenkins et al. Long-term studies have usually not confirmed these findings LSRO, ; Pasman et al.

Current recommendations suggest that instead of eating dietary fiber supplements, a diet of foods high in whole fruits and vegetables may have favorable effects on cardiovascular and cancer risk factors Bruce et al.

Such diets are often lower in fat and higher in CHOs. Very-low-calorie diets VLCDs were used extensively for weight loss in the s and s, but have fallen into disfavor in recent years Atkinson, ; Bray, a; Fisler and Drenick, The VLCDs used most frequently consist of powdered formulas or limited-calorie servings of foods that contain a high-quality protein source, CHO, a small percentage of calories as fat, and the daily recommendations of vitamins and minerals Kanders and Blackburn, ; Wadden, The servings are eaten three to five times per day.

The primary goal of VLCDs is to produce relatively rapid weight loss without substantial loss in lean body mass. To achieve this goal, VLCDs usually provide 1. VLCDs are not appropriate for all overweight individuals, and they are usually limited to patients with a BMI of greater than 25 some guidelines suggest a BMI of 27 or even 30 who have medical complications associated with being overweight and have already tried more conservative treatment programs.

Additionally, because of the potential detrimental side effects of these diets e. On a short-term basis, VLCDs are relatively effective, with weight losses of approximately 15 to 30 kg over 12 to 20 weeks being reported in a number of studies Anderson et al. However, the long-term effectiveness of these diets is somewhat limited.

Approximately 40 to 50 percent of patients drop out of the program before achieving their weight-loss goals. In addition, relatively few people who lose large amounts of weight using VLCDs are able to sustain the weight loss when they resume normal eating.

In two studies, only 30 percent of patients who reached their goal were able to maintain their weight loss for at least 18 months. Within 1 year, the majority of patients regained approximately two-thirds of the lost weight Apfelbaum et al.

In a more recent study with longer followup, the average regain over the first 3 years of follow-up was 73 percent. However, weight tended to stabilize over the fourth year. At 5 years, the dieters had maintained an average of 23 percent of their initial weight loss.

At 7 years, 25 percent of the dieters were maintaining a weight loss of 10 percent of their initial body weight Anderson et al. It appears that VLCDs are more effective for long-term weight loss than hypocaloric-balanced diets.

In a meta-analysis of 29 studies, Anderson and colleagues examined the long-term weight-loss maintenance of individuals put on a VLCD diet with behavioral modification as compared with individuals put on a hypocaloric-balanced diet.

They found that VLCD participants lost significantly more weight initially and maintained significantly more weight loss than participants on the hypocaloric-balanced diet see Table Almost any kind of assistance provided to participants in a weight-management program can be characterized as support services.

These can include emotional support, dietary support, and support services for physical activity. The support services used most often are structured in a standard way.

Other services are developed to meet the specific needs of a site, program, or the individual involved. With few exceptions, almost any weight-management program is likely to be more successful if it is accompanied by support services Heshka et al.

However, not all services will be productively applicable to all patients, and not all can be made available in all settings. Furthermore, some weight-loss program participants will be reluctant to use any support services. Psychological and emotional factors play a significant role in weight management.

Counseling services are those that consider psychological issues associated with inappropriate eating and that are structured to inform the patient about the nature of these issues, their implications, and the possibilities available for their ongoing management.

This intervention is less elaborate, intense, and sustaining than psychotherapy services. For example, it should be useful to help patients understand the existence and nature of a sabotaging household or the phenomenon of stress-related eating without undertaking continuing psychotherapy.

A counselor or therapist can provide this service either in individual or group sessions. These counselors should, however, be sufficiently familiar with the issues that arise with weight-management programs, such as binge eating and purging.

Short-term, individual case management can be helpful, as can group sessions because patients can hear the perspective of other individuals with similar weight-management concerns while addressing their individual concerns Hughes et al. Psychotherapy services, both individual and group, can also be useful.

However, the costs of this type of service limits its applicability to many patients. Nevertheless, the value for individual patients can be substantial, and the option should not be dismissed simply because of cost.

Concerns about childhood abuse, emotional linkages to sustaining obesity fat-dependent personality , and the management of coexisting mental health problems are the kinds of issues that might be addressed with this type of support service. The individual therapist can structure the format of the therapy but, as with counseling services, the therapist should be familiar with weight-management issues.

Nonprofessional patient-led groups and counseling, such as those available with organized programs like Take Off Pounds Sensibly and Overeaters Anonymous, can be useful adjuncts to weight-loss efforts. These programs have the advantages of low cost, continuing support and encouragement, and a semi-structured approach to the issues that arise among weight-management patients.

Their disadvantage is that, since the counseling is nonprofessional in nature, the programs are only as good as the people who are involved. These peer-support programs are more likely to be productive when they are used as a supplement to a program with professional therapists and counselors.

In Overeaters Anonymous, a variant of these groups is a sponsor-system program that pairs individuals who can help one another. Certain commercial programs like Weight Watchers and Jenny Craig can also be helpful.

Since commercial groups have their own agenda, caution must be exercised to avoid contradictions between the advice of professional counselors and that of the supportive commercial program. Since the counselors in commercial programs are not likely to be professionals, the quality of counseling offered by these programs varies with the training of the counselors.

Many communities offer supplemental weight-management services. Educational services, particularly in nutrition, may be provided through community adult education using teaching materials from nonprofit organizations such as the American Heart Association, the American Diabetes Association, and government agencies FDA, National Institutes of Health, and U.

Department of Agriculture. Many community hospitals have staff dietitians who are available for out-patient individual counseling Pavlou et al. However, the military's TRICARE health services contracts would need to be modified to include dietitian services from community hospitals or other community services since these contracts do not currently include medical nutrition therapy and therefore dietitian counseling.

The family unit can be a source of significant assistance to an individual in a weight-management program. For example, program dropout rates tend to be lower when a participant's spouse is involved in the program Jeffery et al.

With simple guidance and direction, the involvement of the spouse as a form of reinforcement rather than as a source of discipline and monitoring can become a resource to assist in supporting the participant. However, individual family members or the family as a group can become an obstacle when they express reluctance to make changes in food and eating patterns within the household.

Issues of family conflict become more complex when the participants are children or adolescents or when spouses are reluctant to relinquish status quo positions of control. A variety of Internet- and web-related services are available to individuals who are trying to manage their weight Davison, ; Gray and Raab, ; Riva et al.

As with any other Internet service, the quality of these sites varies substantially Miles et al. An important role for weight-management professionals is to review such sites so they can recommend those that are the most useful. The use of e-mail counseling services by military personnel who travel frequently or who are stationed in remote locations has been tested at one facility; initial results are promising James et al.

The use of web-based modalities by qualified counselors or facilitators located at large military installations would extend the accessibility of such services to personnel located at small bases or stationed in remote locations. Support is also required for military personnel who need to enhance their levels of physical fitness and physical activity.

All branches of the services have remedial physical fitness training programs for personnel who fail their fitness test, but support is also needed for those who need to lose weight and for all personnel to aid in maintaining proper weight.

Support services should include personnel, facilities, and equipment, and should provide practical advice on how to begin and progress through physical training routines including proper use of training equipment and how to prevent musculoskeletal injuries , as well as advice on when and how to eat in conjunction with physical activity demands.

Success in the promotion of weight loss can sometimes be achieved with the use of drugs. Almost all prescription drugs in current use cause weight loss by suppressing appetite or enhancing satiety.

One drug, however, promotes weight loss by inhibiting fat digestion. To sustain weight loss, these drugs must be taken on a continuing basis; when their use is discontinued, some or all of the lost weight is typically regained.

Therefore, when drugs are effective, it is expected that their use will continue indefinitely. For maximum benefit and safety, the use of weight-loss drugs should occur only in the context of a comprehensive weight-loss program. In general, these drugs can induce a 5- to percent mean drop in body weight within 6 months of treatment initiation, but the effect can be larger or smaller depending on the individual.

As with any drug, the occurrence of side effects may exclude their use in certain occupational contexts. Recognition that weight-related diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension, occur in individuals with BMI levels below 25, and that weight loss improves these conditions in these individuals, suggests that indications for weight-loss drugs need to be individualized to the specific patient.

A number of hormonal and metabolic differences distinguish obese people from lean people Leibel et al. Weight loss alters metabolism in obese individuals, limiting energy expenditure and reducing protein synthesis.

This alteration suggests that the body may attempt to maintain an elevated body weight. The facts that genetics might play a role in hormonal and metabolic differences between people and that weight loss alters metabolism imply that obesity is not a simple psychological problem or a failure of self-discipline.

Instead, it is a chronic metabolic disease similar to other chronic diseases and it involves alterations of the body's biochemistry. Like most other chronic diseases that require ongoing pharmacotherapy to prevent the recurrence of symptoms, obesity management and relapse prevention may someday be accomplished through this form of treatment.

The following sections provide a brief review of the mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety of prescription agents that have been approved for weight loss and the various over-the-counter substances that are promoted for weight loss. Energy intake may be curbed by reducing hunger or appetite or by enhancing satiety.

Summary of Potential Mechanisms of Action of Obesity Drugs. Some obesity drugs may reduce the preference for dietary fat or refined CHOs Blundell et al. For example, the drug orlistat reduces the absorption of fat, which results in energy loss in the feces; other drugs not approved for obesity treatment reduce CHO absorption Heal et al.

These drugs may produce sufficiently adverse effects, such as oily stools or increased flatus, so that patients reduce consumption of high-fat foods in favor of less energy-dense foods McNeely and Benfield, ; Sjostrom et al.

Obesity drugs also may increase activity levels or stimulate metabolic rate. Drugs such as fenfluramine or sibutramine were reported to increase energy expenditure in some studies Arch, ; Astrup et al. Fluoxetine, although not approved for obesity treatment, has been shown to increase resting metabolic rate Bross and Hoffer, Ephedrine and caffeine, which act on adenosine receptors, may increase metabolic rate, reduce body-fat storage, and increase lean mass Liu et al.

With one exception orlistat , all currently available prescription obesity drugs act on either the adrenergic or serotonergic systems in the central nervous system to regulate energy intake or expenditure Bray, b.

Table summarizes the mechanism of action of pharmacological agents used for treating obesity, which are discussed in detail below. Prescription Pharmacological Agents for Weight-Loss Treatment and Mechanisms of Action. Phentermine, an adrenergic agent, is the most commonly used prescription drug for obesity and has one of the lowest costs of all prescription agents.

Weight loss is comparable with that of other single agents Silverstone, Diethylpropion, phendimetrazine, and benzphetamine are other adrenergic agents that stimulate central norepinephrine secretion and produce weight loss similar to that of phentermine Griffiths et al.

The categorization of phendimetrazine and benzphetamine as Drug Enforcement Agency Schedule III drugs may have limited their use, although little evidence exists to suggest that they have a higher abuse potential than does phentermine.

Diethylpropion was reported to have a higher reinforcement potential in nonhuman primates than that of the other Schedule III and IV adrenergic drugs Griffiths et al. No currently available agents for treating obesity are exclusively serotonergic.

Fluoxetine and sertraline are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that produce weight loss Bross and Hoffer, ; Goldstein et al. Fluoxetine produced good weight loss after 6 months, but 1-year results were not different from those of placebo treatment Goldstein et al.

Sertraline also produced short-term weight loss Ricca et al. Sibutramine inhibits reuptake of both norepinephrine and serotonin in central nervous system neurons. Blood pressure rose slightly in normotensive subjects, but fell in hypertensive subjects Heal et al.

Decreases in fasting blood glucose, insulin, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and computerized tomography-estimated abdominal fat were greater with sibutramine than with placebo Heal et al.

The greater weight losses observed in the sibutramine group compared with the placebo group may be responsible for the greater improvements in other parameters. Common complaints with the use of centrally active adrenergic and serotonergic obesity drugs include dry mouth, fatigue, hair loss, constipation, sweating, sleep disturbances, and sexual dysfunction Atkinson et al.

Sibutramine can increase blood pressure and pulse rate in occasional patients and may cause dizziness and increased food intake Cole et al. Mazindol may cause penile discharge van Puijenbroek and Meyboom, Orlistat binds to lipase in the gastrointestinal tract and inhibits absorption of about one-third of dietary fat Hollander et al.

Average weight loss on orlistat is about 8 to 11 percent of initial body weight at 1 year James WP et al. Although weight loss may be responsible for some of the observed improvements, orlistat lowered LDL independently of its effect on weight loss.

Acarbose is an alpha glucosidase inhibitor that inhibits or delays absorption of complex CHOs Wolever et al. This drug is approved by FDA for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, but not for weight loss. Although it produces modest weight loss in animals, it has minimal or no effect on humans.

Adverse side effects of orlistat include abdominal cramping, increased flatus formation, diarrhea, oily spotting, and fecal incontinence Hollander et al. These adverse effects may serve as a behavior modification tool to reduce the level of fat in the diet and presumably to reduce energy intake.

Orlistat has been shown to produce small reductions in serum levels of fat-soluble vitamins. The manufacturer recommends that a vitamin supplement containing vitamins A, D, E, and K be prescribed for patients taking orlistat.

A variety of drugs currently on the market for other conditions, but not approved by FDA for obesity treatment, have been evaluated for their ability to induce weight loss. Metformin Lee and Morley, , cimetidine Rasmussen et al.

Additional studies are needed to support these findings. Although chronic diseases often require treatment with more than one drug, few studies have evaluated combination therapy for obesity. Private practitioners have used various combinations in an off-label fashion.

The available data suggest that combination therapy is somewhat more effective than therapy with single agents. Combinations such as phentermine and fenfluramine or ephedrine and caffeine produce weight losses of about 15 percent or more of initial body weight compared with about 10 percent or less with single drug use.

However, due to reported side-effects of cardiac valve lesions and pulmonary hypertension, fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine are no longer available. Results of tests using combinations of phentermine with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors mainly fluoxetine or sertraline have been reported in abstracts or preliminary reports Dhurandhar and Atkinson, ; Griffen and Anchors, These combinations produced weight losses somewhat less than that of the combination treatment of ephedrine-caffeine, but greater than that of treatment with single agents Dhurandhar and Atkinson, Anchors used the combination of phentermine and fluoxetine in a large series of patients and suggested that this combination is safe and effective.

Griffen and Anchors reported that the combination of phentermine-fluoxetine was not associated with the cardiac valve lesions that were reported for fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine.

In , Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, which exempted dietary supplements including those promoted for weight loss from the requirement to demonstrate safety and efficacy. As a result, the variety of over-the-counter preparations touted to promote weight loss has exploded.

Dietary supplements include compounds such as herbal preparations often of unknown composition , chemicals e. With the exception of herbal preparations of ephedrine and caffeine, none of these compounds have produced more than a minimal weight loss and most are ineffective or have been insufficiently studied to determine their efficacy.

Furthermore, while little is known about the safety of many of these compounds, there are a growing number of adverse event reports for several of them.

Table summarizes the current safety and efficacy profile of a number of alternative compounds promoted for the purpose of weight loss. Alternative Medicines, Herbs, and Supplements Used for Weight Loss. The combination of ephedrine and caffeine to treat obesity has been reported to produce weight losses of 15 percent or more of initial body weight Daly et al.

Both drugs are the active ingredients in a number of herbal weight-loss preparations. Weight loss is maximal at about 4 to 6 months on this combination, but body-fat levels may continue to decrease through 9 to 12 months, with increases in lean body mass Toubro et al.

This observation suggests that the combination may be a beta-3 adrenergic agonist Liu et al. The amount of calories burned through exercise depends on the intensity, frequency and duration of the physical activity.

Try thinking of new ways to be active rather than just hitting the gym. Creativity counts! Losing weight can be a long process, but the most important thing is to stick with your new lifestyle. Find different ways to motivate yourself, whether it is through a supportive group of friends or an exciting reward at weight loss checkpoints.

Staying positive is essential, and having compassion for yourself is key. Tell yourself you can, and will, obtain your weight loss goals and create a new lifestyle for yourself through hard work and perseverance.

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Managemeny losing Weight management goals is Weight management goals your to-do list, now's the time mnagement organize your weight-loss plan. Effective, lifelong weight-loss interventions take time and planning. And there's a lot to think about: What is your weight goal? What will you eat? Will you count calories? When will you exercise, and how much time will you spend exercising?

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